Artibus et Historiae no. 77 (XXXIX), 2018
2018 
232 x 252 mm 
ISSN 0391-9064
90 EURO
Contents
LORENZO GNOCCHI - Carlo Del Bravo (1935-2017)

La luce d’oriente entra e si diffonde sul lungo piano di travertino della scrivania di Carlo Del Bravo, trasfigurando le morbide superfici dei vasi di alabastro, creati da un artigiano volterrano suo amico, che occupano una parte di quel piano, divenendo luoghi trasognati di riposi contemplativi per lo studioso che è sui libri e le carte fin dalle prime ore del mattino; quella luce continua il suo corso e lambisce, sui bassi scaffali con i libri più cari, sulla parete, su quel piano, le sculture ed i quadri più amati della sua collezione. Sono perlopiù volti e ritratti dall’antichità classica al XXI secolo, i cui occhi cercano quelli di Del Bravo assiso di fronte, oppure tendono all’alto come a chiamarlo a salire, così che la loro bellezza intesse un dialogo continuo tra le loro antiche umanità e quella dell’interlocutore moderno, un dialogo di reciproca «intesa».

Con questi incontri quotidiani Del Bravo sperimentava nella propria esistenza la concezione che aveva maturato dell’arte come bellezza frutto del pensiero dell’artista, inserito nelle possibilità filosofiche del suo tempo, e la cui comprensione è il fine cui tende lo studio, considerando le opere figurative come testi da leggere, nei quali le parole sono le figure rappresentate, animate e non, da comprendere secondo l’iconologia intesa in senso lato, e la sintassi è costituita dalla forma che l’artista ha dato alla sequenza narrativa guidata dalla mimica del volto e dal gesto delle figure: un testo che, assieme agli altri del corpus dell’artista, svela quella che definiva l’«iconologia generale», ovvero di questi il pensiero, storicisticamente compreso all’interno delle molte vie che esso prendeva sia nell’umanesimo e nelle sue estensioni fino al XVII secolo, sia nei tempi successivi fino alla contemporaneità; vie molteplici secondo i momenti della storia che dalla bellezza artistica son declinati fino ad assumere, di artista in artista, accenti molto individuali.

 

Su questa consapevolezza si fonda l’intera ricerca storico artistica che Carlo Del Bravo, nato a San Casciano val di Pesa il 16 luglio del 1935, ha svolto dalla metà degli anni settanta fino alla morte, a Firenze il 12 agosto del 2017; una ricerca condotta per saggi su moltissimi artisti fra il XV ed il XXI secolo, che sono delle vere sonde in profondità nei pensieri propri di ciascuno di essi, ed il cui insieme costituisce un poderoso fondamento per una storia, tramite l’arte, dell’identità moderna nel suo complesso divenire. Saggi che poi Del Bravo, allo scader di ogni decennio, ha raccolto nei tre volumi editi ed in un quarto – da lui solamente concepito, perché uscirà postumo –, i cui titoli sono una vera e propria dichiarazione sulla finalità della propria vita di studioso: dal primo libro, del 1985, nel quale Le risposte dell’arte sono quelle che ogni artista, storicisticamente ed individualmente, ha dato alle domande sul significato dell’essere uomo postegli dallo studioso; risposte che, nel secondo volume del 1997, spiegano come sempre sia stata indissolubile l’unione fra Bellezza e pensiero filosofico e letterario, quello del tempo storico e dell’artista, profondo e altrimenti nell’oggi sconosciuto, ma la riscoperta del quale, attraverso l’immediata comprensibilità della bellezza, porta alle radicali Intese sull’arte che egli riuscì a tessere, nel volume del 2008, sia interiori, con gli artisti del passato, sia con molti dei suoi tanti allievi; l’intesa fra chi riconosce de La bellezza, la sua pace, come avrebbe titolato la raccolta degli scritti degli ultimi nove anni: quella pace che ella offre a chi la contempla cercandovi le risposte alle grandi domande dell’uomo.

Questo amore verso i vari significati catartici e profondi celati nella bellezza dall’uomo creata, è in Del Bravo affiorata sin dall’inconsapevole stagione dell’infanzia e della prima giovinezza nel corso di estati trascorse nella casa nella proprietà paterna di Valle in Chianti, quando ammirava l’ordine di muretti a secco, di terrazzamenti a coltivazione promiscua, e comprendeva con quale eletta e colta sapienza i contadini creavano una meravigliosa armonica proporzione fra l’irregolare natura e la regola dell’uomo, senza che l’una prevaricasse l’altra; un lirico innamoramento per la bellezza, così nato ed espresso in giovanili poesie, che ha trovato esito nella Storia dell’arte, appresa alla scuola di Roberto Longhi col quale si è laureato nel 1959, seguendo quel metodo analogico fra la parola estetica e l’opera da studiare, da «conoscitore», per attribuirla e collocarla cronologicamente: è stata una disposizione critica che Del Bravo ha accolto come l’attesa colta risposta all’impulso poetico, e che fece propria negli studi degli anni sessanta, prima, con i saggi, fra gli altri, sul Vignali e sul Dolci, entrambi pubblicati su «Paragone» negli anni ’61 e ’62, su Mei e Manetti, «Pantheon» ’66, su Cristofano Allori, ’67, con i quali partecipava alla riscoperta dell’allora trascurato Seicento fiorentino e senese, animata soprattutto da Mina Gregori; poi, scoprendo l’arte accademica toscana del XIX secolo, che gli costò l’incomprensione del maestro Longhi, attraverso il cui studio comprese la sopravvivenza vitalissima della bellezza all’antica nelle opere degli Artisti toscani contemporanei di Ingres, mostra del ’68 al Gabinetto dei disegni e stampe degli Uffizi, come Bezzuoli, Ciseri, i Cassioli, Visconti, del Benvenuti, mostra del ’69, del Bezzuoli, del Franchi, ’72, di Bartolini e Sabatelli, e di tutti gli altri cui dedicò saggi veramente all’avanguardia, ma anche come questi artisti esprimessero formalmente la sostanza di una bellezza che si comprende solo seguendo i contemporanei dibattiti teorici su di essa: una scoperta, quest’ultima che lo indusse, dopo un biennale studio su La scultura senese del Quattrocento, titolo del libro edito nel 1970, a conclusione di una borsa presso i Tatti, a cercare nella letteratura e nelle diverse vie filosofiche del tempo degli artisti la chiave per comprenderne la bellezza sia della forma sia dei contenuti.

Inizia allora dalla metà degli anni settanta ad applicare un metodo che per quaranta anni arricchirà di nuovi strumenti di indagine, parallelamente studiando argomenti sia più recenti sia storici. Con i primi divenendo uno dei maggiori conoscitori ed estimatori dell’arte, otto e novecentesca, figurativa e di tradizione in Italia ed in Europa, oltreché profondo interprete delle ragioni umane e filosofico-culturali che la giustificano, e che sono antitetiche a quelle interpretate da quanti l’hanno contrastata allora, ed ora la «ostracizzano». In particolare, fra i molti contributi in questo campo, se ne possono ricordare due particolarmente pregnanti, come Sculture italiane 1920–1940, del 1981, col recupero di tanti importanti artisti dimenticati e delle ragioni culturali della loro arte, e Centenario, del 1993, sul dibattito teorico e sul suo riflesso negli artisti, anche poco noti, in Francia, fra realismo imperante nel IX decennio e suo superamento nel X dell’ottocento; ma è necessario anche ricordare le interpretazioni su gli amici artisti dei quali è stato committente. Mentre, con gli studi su argomenti dal XV al XVIII secolo, Del Bravo considera moltissimi artisti, grandi e meno, italiani e francesi, ai quali dà l’identità di un pensiero umano e filosofico considerandone l’«iconologia generale» e gli aspetti compositivi (e allora ricordo Scale di immaginazioni, del 1992, saggio col quale comprende come, nelle grandi decorazioni pittoriche o plastico-scultoree del Cinque e Seicento, la pittura o la scultura di diverse arti sovrapposte costituiscono dei gradi conoscitivi, che mutano fra artista ed artista), con un argomento in particolare amato, che è quello di Michelangelo al quale dedica considerazione profonde e metodologicamente assai stimolanti, in diversi scritti, fra i quali emergono: Breve commento alla volta Sistina, del 1996, Intorno al «Giudizio», del 2000, La bellezza dei «Duchi» in Michelangelo, del 2002.

Tutti i saggi di questa lunga ed intensa stagione, editi per lo più sulle due riviste su cui ha scritto – questa che ci ospita, e, dal 1989, «Artista, critica d’arte in Toscana», della quale fu fondatore e direttore con Carlo Sisi e Anna Maria Petrioli Tofani –, erano da Del Bravo accompagnati con foto da lui fatte scattare secondo i punti di vista e con i particolari ai quali lo studio lo aveva condotto – come in particolare dimostrano, sia il cataloghino, 1981, delle foto di sculture del Mochi, eseguite da Marcello Bertoni guidato dalla sua regia, sia le immagini scelte e tagliate da lui stesso per i contributi sulla rivista «Artista» –: essendo amante e grande conoscitore della fotografia che ha praticato anche con propri scatti di libera immaginazione.

Questa mole incessante di studio ha alimentato l’altro aspetto pregnante della personalità di Del Bravo: quella di docente, prima, dopo la laurea, presso il Magistero del glorioso Istituto d’Arte fiorentino, dove ha avuto per allievi e per colleghi quelli che sono diventati gli artisti delle sue committenze, poi all’Università di Firenze nelle Facoltà, di Architettura dal ’66 e dal ’69 di Lettere e Filosofia come docente di Storia dell’Arte moderna, ordinario dall’82 fino al pensionamento nel 2008, col titolo di Emerito. Insegnamento nel quale ha profuso gran parte delle proprie, molte, forze umane ed intellettuali, con grande severità, ma anche con affettuosa partecipazione, con straordinaria chiarezza e lessicale elezione, e privilegiando una didattica seminariale; instaurava così con gli allievi vere amicizie fondate sull’«intesa» dei valori dell’arte e della bellezza: i corsi presentavano ogni anno argomenti nuovi e metodologicamente formativi, e le «Lezioni di lettura e attribuzione di opere d’arte» dal XV al XXI secolo allargavano la conoscenza a quegli artisti che egli presentava in largo anticipo sui tempi della loro riscoperta, come, già dagli anni sessanta, i pittori scandinavi, gli «accademici» italiani ed europei dell’ottocento, le secessioni fotografiche, gli scultori figurativi fra le due guerre.

Del Bravo ha consacrato l’intera sua esistenza alla bellezza portatrice di grandi pensieri, ed ha rappresentato una vera luce, negli studi, nell’insegnamento, come nelle amicizie.

IRINA CHERNETSKY - The Image of Florence in Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise (pp. 13–30)
The Image of Florence in Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise

The present paper discusses the sculptural representations of Jerusalem depicted in the David and the Solomon reliefs in Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise (1425–1452). Ghiberti designed the architectural features of the Holy City to incorporate prominent Roman and Florentine landmarks. The significance of the two reliefs becomes clear when they are taken together with the two reliefs of Moses and Joshua. The four lower reliefs – the panels most easily accessible to a spectator – expound the theme of the entry into the Promised Land and the glory of Jerusalem. They also connect the representation of Jerusalem to events in the contemporary history of Florence. Florence was the home of the pope in exile, and the host to the Ecumenical Council, which was intended to engender great Church reforms. The Florentines promoted themselves as the elected nation and their city as both a New Rome and a New Jerusalem. These aspirations were reflected in liturgical celebrations, held inside the church and outside in the city streets. They were the subject of sermons and, as we see in the Gates of Paradise, they found expression in the visual arts.
ALISON MANGES NOGUEIRA - Antonio Pollaiuolo’s Designs for the Equestrian Monument to Francesco Sforza: Patronage and Portraiture at the Court of Milan (pp. 31–55)
Antonio Pollaiuolo’s Designs for the Equestrian Monument to Francesco Sforza: Patronage and Portraiture at the Court of Milan

The present text examines Antonio Pollaiuolo’s two designs for the unrealized bronze equestrian monument to the Milanese duke Francesco Sforza and the unique, unexplored insight they provide into its complex history, evolution, patronage, iconography, and political significance at the Sforza court during the last three decades of the fifteenth century. Pollaiuolo’s drawings represent the nexus of an extensive series of equestrian images of Francesco, which served to legitimize his rule and that of his successors. By examining the drawings with the broader context of Francesco’s portraiture, the present text demonstrates they represent the Sforza duke (a notion that has recently been challenged in the scholarship), at varying ages and levels of idealization. A close analysis of the variations in pose, physiognomy, iconography, and level of detail in the two drawings suggests that they illustrate differing ideological conceptions of the monument produced several years apart – one in the early 1470s for Galeazzo Maria and the other in the early 1480s for Ludovico – reflecting the latter’s manipulation of his father’s image to suit his propagandistic needs. Exploring the close connections between visual and literary propaganda at the Milanese court, the text will suggest that Pollaiuolo’s earlier design may relate to the Sforziade, the biography of the duke completed in 1473 by the court humanist Francesco Filelfo, who may have played a key role in planning the monument.
PASCALE DUBUS - Peindre l’homme inanimé: le corps en raccourci au Cinquecento (pp. 57–76)
Painting the Lifeless Man: The Foreshortened Figure in the Cinquecento

The invention of the perspective in the Quattrocento was associated with the foreshortening – a device applied to the body. Among the various forms of this particular perspective, the foreshortened body, stretched out over a horizontal support or lying on the ground, enjoyed a considerable popularity in the Cinquecento painting. A group of works presented in the paper has helped to examine the genesis, variations and properties of this perspectival device to grasp the meaning of this singular representation of the inanimate figure. Is the foreshortening of inanimate bodies lying on the ground a figurative device or a convention that indicates death of the represented figures, in other words, does it imply those bodies to be dead?
MICHAEL W. KWAKKELSTEIN - The Limited Impact of Leonardo da Vinci’s Ideas on Painting in Sforza Milan (pp. 77–98)
The Limited Impact of Leonardo da Vinci’s Ideas on Painting in Sforza Milan

The notes on drawing Leonardo da Vinci compiled during the 1490s while in Milan have only sporadically been studied in relation to the drawing practice of his Milanese pupils and closest followers. It has generally been accepted that Leonardo’s drawings and his rules on drawing exerted an immediate influence on the first generation of Lombard painters who worked with him in Milan. This article challenges this view and instead argues that these painters ignored most of Leonardo’s precepts on how to use drawing in order to acquire excellence in painting. It suggests that during Leonardo’s first stay in Milan his influence as a teacher of art was much more limited than has hitherto been acknowledged. Unlike Leonardo, his Lombard followers needed to be productive as painters and therefore had little patience with his notion of painting as an all-embracing science. This explains why they preferred not to study nature but to depend closely on Leonardo’s designs and models, a practice he severely criticized in his notes.
NILS BÜTTNER - Plus semper quam pingitur: The Catholic Bruegel (pp. 99–109)
Plus semper quam pingitur: The Catholic Bruegel

The question of Bruegel’s religion has long been the subject of discussion, and in order to answer it scholars have usually referred to single historical sources or works without taking the larger context into account. Additionally, often works or groups of works were taken as an argumentative basis of which the production contexts are only partially, if at all, documented. This article attempts for the first time to answer this open question by taking into account all known historical sources and those works of which historical contexts are known. The premise is the theory of the historian Reinhart Koselleck who introduced ‘the sources’ right of veto’: rather than define what can be claimed, historical sources reveal what should not be claimed. Based on this premise, Bruegel was a Catholic – just as his friend the geographer Abraham Ortelius – and he never gave his contemporaries reasons to doubt his religious denomination.
ANTHONY APESOS - Titian’s Flaying of Marsyas: Colorito Triumphant (pp. 111–143)
Titian’s Flaying of MarsyasColorito Triumphant

Titian’s painting of The Flaying of Marsyas in the archbishop’s palace in Kroměříž is possibly the last work touched by the brush of the master and it was probably still in Titian’s studio after he died in 1576. The painting depicts the punishment dealt to Marsyas, the loser in a musical contest between him and the god Apollo. In discussions of the painting, two aspects have occasioned significant disagreement: the identification of the figure of Midas as a self-portrait of Titian and the question of the facture of the painting as evidence of Titian’s late style or of simple lack of finish. These two issues are, I will argue, closely linked and can be illuminated by a consideration of Titian’s use of Giulio Romano’s composition of the same subject. My discussion of the identity of Midas, the facture of Titian’s painting and its relation to Giulio’s painting lead to an understanding of the Flaying of Marsyas as a contribution by Titian to the controversy between coloreand disegno in sixteenth-century Italian art theory.
SHIGETOSHI OSANO - The Newly Discovered Portrait of Ito Mansio by Domenico Tintoretto: Further Insight into the Mystery of its Making (pp. 145–160)
The Newly Discovered Portrait of Ito Mansio by Domenico Tintoretto: Further Insight into the Mystery of its Making

Recent studies on the newly discovered portrait of Ito Mansio have argued that the painting was originally intended for a commemorative group portrait of the four boys of the Japanese embassy to the Holy See in 1585. As a result, it was noticeably modified during the final stage of production to render it more marketable. Yet, the group portrait is believed to have remained unfinished. Daniello Bartoli’s History of the Jesuits reports that in addition to the portrait of Ito Mansio, only preparatory sketches for the portraits of the other boys were executed.

A search for these sketches in the hope that they might have somehow survived led us to recognize a remarkable resemblance between the portrait of Ito Mansio and the Portrait of a Gentleman by Domenico Tintoretto at the Blanton Museum of Art. In fact the digital images of both portraits match almost perfectly when laid on top of each other in a computer-generated graphic. A close examination of the X-ray photograph mosaic of the Portrait of a Gentleman also led us to speculate that Domenico Tintoretto most likely made an initial underdrawing of Ito Mansio’s portrait, from life, directly on the canvas of the Blanton Museum painting. This is consistent with the description given by Carlo Ridolfi in 1642 and 1648 in his Life of Jacopo Robusti Called Tintoretto.

MARIE-LOUISE LILLYWHITE - The Decoration of the Jesuit Church of the Madonna dell’Umiltà in Venice, 1560–1606 (pp. 161–200)
The Decoration of the Jesuit Church of the Madonna dell’Umiltà in Venice, 1560–1606

This article reconstructs the appearance of the Jesuit church of the Madonna dell’Umiltà in Venice from 1560 until the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city in 1606. The Umiltà is the earliest example of a decorated college church belonging to the Jesuit Order and was famed for its rich decoration. Despite this, the church has been subject to scant art-historical attention in part due to its destruction in the nineteenth century. This article relates the decoration of the church to the devotions of the Jesuit Order and to the impact that the Tridentine decrees and the Council of Trent had on artistic production in this period in Venice.
MARY D. GARRARD - Michelangelo and the Gaze of Medusa (pp. 201–230)
Michelangelo and the Gaze of Medusa

Some thirty years ago, the centuries-old backing on the reverse of Michelangelo’s celebrated drawing of Cleopatra was removed, revealing a nearly complete sketch of a female head. This discovery prompted commentary by several scholars, who identified it as a variant version of, or preparatory study for, the image of Cleopatra on the recto. In this essay, I demonstrate that the uncovered image does not represent Cleopatra, but instead Medusa. The ensuing discussion pursues the question of meaning in the drawing, both intentional and residual. Asking why Michelangelo produced an image of the dangerous Gorgon, left it unfinished but did not entirely abandon it, leads to a consideration of the relationship between the legendary Medusa and the historical Cleopatra, and the basis on which Michelangelo might have identified with Medusa as a creative figure. The Medusa drawing is shown to be conceptually and expressively related to other Michelangelo work of the 1520s – the Medici Chapel sculptures and two groups of drawings, the grottesche and the teste divine – relationships from which a thematic preoccupation of the artist can be discerned.

SASKIA RUBIN - Domine, Quo Vadis? Annibale Carracci Approaches an Old Theme Anew (pp. 231–253)
Domine, Quo Vadis? Annibale Carracci Approaches an Old Theme Anew

This article examines the Domine, Quo Vadis? painting by Annibale Carracci (1560–1609) that hangs in the National Gallery, London. Painted between 1601–1602, the panel depicts the apocryphal encounter between Christ and St Peter on the Appian Way, as the latter flees from persecution by Nero’s guards in Rome. Peter asks Christ, ‘Master, where are you going?’, to which Christ responds, ‘I am going to Rome, to be crucified anew’. Following the apparition, Peter turns back and sacrifices himself instead. Carracci diverges significantly from the traditional artistic renderings of the incident, both in terms of narrative strategy and scenic composition. It will be argued that his treatment of the subject can be interpreted as a direct address to the patron of this work, Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (1571–1621). Playing upon the moral underpinning of the subject, Carracci devises an innovative composition that is tailored to stimulate personal introspection in the Cardinal. However, the piece performs the equally important function of projecting outwards the powerful and learned status of its owner. Carracci’s work flatteringly implies an erudite patron through its overt references to Raphael, Michelangelo and the ancient past of Rome. The approach of Raphael in particular to classical antiquity was admired by Cardinal Aldobrandini and his personal secretary, Giovanni Battista Agucchi (1570–1632). The idealising classicism of his late career earned Carracci the praise of Agucchi, whose role in shaping the taste of the Cardinal must be acknowledged. The Domine, Quo Vadis?fulfils Agucchi’s desire that artists should have an idea of things ‘not as they are, but as they ought to be’. Carracci also inserts a fictive paesaggio classico into his Domine, Quo Vadis?. This emerging Seicento pictorial type, to which Cardinal Aldobrandini was especially partial, is the final confirmation of a work destined unmistakably for a unique audience.

IRVING LAVIN, with MARILYN ARONBERG LAVIN - Bernini’s Bust of Prospero Farinacci (pp. 255–290)
Bernini’s Bust of Prospero Farinacci

After a fifty-year search, a bust inscribed with the name ‘FARINACIO’, made of white Carrara and black Belgian marble, is identified as a portrait of the famous Roman advocate of Beatrice Cenci and attributed to the young Gianlorenzo Bernini. The bust is analyzed and its history traced from the time of its creation about 1619 in Rome to its transportation to the USA, first in Detroit, MI, then New York City, and finally in Princeton, NJ. The essay includes a chart of Gianlorenzo’s works up to 1620, and a critical review of documents and inventories demonstrating his authorship of several other sculptures that have been erroneously disputed.
KRISTOFFER NEVILLE - Virtuosity, Mutability, and the Sculptor’s Career in and out of the Low Countries, 1550–1650 (pp. 291–318)
Virtuosity, Mutability, and the Sculptor’s Career in and out of the Low Countries, 1550–1650

This article examines a group of sculptors active in northern Europe c. 1550–1650 who worked in a variety of manners, or styles, according to the requirements of their various commissions. Each was highly regarded in his lifetime, but has since fallen into obscurity. This is in part because art history as a discipline has traditionally valued a consistent and unique manner as an indicator of artistic quality and legitimacy, and the sort of accommodation evident in these projects has been seen either as a sign of a weak ‘artistic personality’, easily susceptible to influence from other practitioners, or, alternatively, as an approach in which the sculptor produces whatever the patron wishes, in whatever style, thus compromising authorial integrity. However, a group of early modern sources extols precisely this kind of skill as a particular form of virtuosity. Early penmanship manuals provide a particularly useful point of reference. They present scribal practices both as an applied skill and as a virtuosic art. Unlike the sources that have been privileged by art historians, however, they recognize a group of categorically different scripts, each equally valid and with its own uses and aesthetic qualities. Crucially, the authors of these manuals argue that a good calligrapher should be able to move easily among the different scripts, much as the sculptors discussed here moved from one manner or style to another.
GIOVAN BATTISTA FIDANZA - The Ephemeral Apparatus for the Funeral of Jan III Sobieski in Rome: Cardinal Carlo Barberini’s Art and Politics (pp. 319–333)
The Ephemeral Apparatus for the Funeral of Jan III Sobieski in Rome: Cardinal Carlo Barberini’s Art and Politics 

This article deals with the catafalque and ephemeral apparatus commissioned by Cardinal Carlo Barberini for the absente corpore funeral of Jan III Sobieski, which took place in Rome on 10 December 1696 at the Church of St Stanislaus. Thanks to a number of unpublished documents (from the Barberini Archive of the Vatican Library) it was possible to identify both the artists and artisans involved in the construction and decoration of the catafalque and ephemeral apparatus. Worthy of note is also the discovery of the sum total spent on this funeral by Carlo Barberini, at that time the Cardinal Protector of Poland, an office involving his engagement in political and diplomatic affairs. During the research for this essay, the documents relative to payments for both the etching depicting Jan III’s catafalque (by Pietro Santi Bartoli) and the plate from which it was printed have emerged.

The most interesting result of the research is the identification of the painter Philipp Jakob Wörndle from Austria as the author of six oval canvases depicting episodes of Jan III’s life, of which only four survive, in storage at the Gallerie Nazionali di Arte Antica di Palazzo Barberini in Rome.

FRANK ZÖLLNER - Werner Tübke’s History of the German Working Class Movement of 1961 and its Place within his Commissioned Art Works (pp. 335–363)
Werner Tübke’s History of the German Working Class Movement of 1961 and its Place within his Commissioned Art Works

This article starts by looking at the political, commissioned works by the Leipzig painter Werner Tübke (1929–2004), which address subjects such as the destruction of Hiroshima, West German rearmament and the problems of capitalism, imperialism and globalisation, as well as Fascism, historical wars of liberation and the German Revolution of 1918/19. Alongside Tübke’s stylistic development, it focuses above all on his four paintings on the History of the German Working Class Movement (Leipzig, Museum der bildenden Künste), analysing both the sources upon which he drew (texts and photographs) and his preliminary studies for the cycle. It also examines the view of history illustrated in the History of the German Working Class Movement cycle, Tübke’s interrogation of the Communist utopia and his use of documentary photographs.