Artibus et Historiae no. 47 (XXIV), 2003
252 x 232 mm
ISSN 0391-9064
IAN HOLGATE - Giovanni d'Alemagna, Antonio Vivarini and the Early History of the Overtari Chapel (pp. 9—29)
The 1448 contracts for the decoration of the Ovetari chapel in Padua awarded the lion's share of the work to the Venetian painters, Giovanni d'Alemagna and Antonio Vivarini. Despite this, their role in the project is often overlooked in discussions concerning the chapel since they covered only a fraction of the wall space allocated to them before abandoning the project altogether in 1450. The present study aims to reach a better understanding of their relationship to the Ovetari project through a reconsideration of their surviving Paduan works. The study contributes to our understanding of the chapel in several ways. Firstly it reveals new links between patrons and artists. In addition it puts forward fresh proposals concerning the designs of Giovanni and Antonio for the project, based upon evidence of their work in the chapel itself and from their contemporary oeuvre. Moreover, it proposes a new role for the so-called Forzori altar as an important source for the designs of the Ovetari artists. Finally, the paper charts the biography of Giovanni d'Alemagna suggesting a long-standing relationship between the artist and Paduan audiences.
ECKART MARCHAND - Monastic Imitatio Christi: Andrea del Castagno's Cenacolo di S. Apollonia (pp. 31—50)
Monastic Imitatio Christi: Andrea del Castagno's Cenacolo di S. Apollonia
This article proposes an interpretation of the choice, placement and rendering of the scenes painted for the female Florentine convent (c. 1447) in its religious context. The Last Supper is read as an imago that presented the nuns with important exemplars-the apostles, who were the model of a communal life in imitatio Christi. Castagno encourages their contemplation rather than that of the event by the depiction of gestures that characterize them as individuals. In the Crucifixion, Entombment and Resurrection Castagno emphasizes the narrative, concentrating on the bystanders' grief. While the apostles were models for monks and nuns alike, here Castagno provided the nuns of S. Apollonia with suitable female models. 
JAMES BECK - Piero della Francesca at San Francesco in Arezzo: An Art-Historical Peregrination (pp. 51—80)

Operating upon the principle that each generation of scholars and critics can and should confront and revaluate the influential works which they study, the author here seeks to develop a new reading of the True Cross cycle by Piero della Francesca in Arezzo. No effort is offered for another iconographic reading, however. Instead the author seeks to present a visual reading in which the objects constitute the central matrix. The trigger for this paper is the discovery of documents by Enzo Settesoldi, one of which indicates that Piero began painting the famous cycle in 1457, rather than 1452, the date usually taken. The implications of the new date for future study of Piero is incalculable, but here it will only be applied to the Arezzo frescoes. 

PAVEL KALINA - Giovanni Pisano, the Dominicans, and the Origin of the crucifixi dolorosi (pp. 81—101)

The crucifixi dolorosi were traditionally believed to be a product of Central European, especially German culture. Their model was sought for in the well-known Crucifix of St. Maria in Kapitol church in Cologne. It is, however, probable that this sculptural type was of Italian origin. It could be inspired by sculptures of Giovanni Pisano, not only by his stone and wooden crucifixes, but also by such statues as his Christ from the Flagellation in the Pisa Baptistery pulpit. The spiritual roots of the sculptural type are to be found rather in the literature and praxis of flagellant brotherhoods, which blossomed in trecento Italy than in German mysticism where they were sought for earlier. 

ARNOLD VICTOR COONIN - The Interaction of Painting and Sculpture in the Art of Perugino (pp. 103—120)

Pietro Perugino was one of the most important painters of the Italian Renaissance, yet his career reveals a significant debt to the art of sculpture. The artist regularly utilized sculptures to assist in the design of paintings, and he enjoyed profitable working relationships with many individual sculptors. Perugino looked to sculpture both as a source of inspiration and for its practical value in the studio for study, teaching, and as a source of models. Perugino particularly studied works by Verrocchio, Pollaiuolo, Donatello, and Jacopo Sansovino. His professional interaction with practicing sculptors also proved significant, especially his association with Verrocchio and his rental of a studio in Florence from the heirs of Lorenzo Ghiberti. This studio, called "le porte," was still active, in part, as a sculpture workshop and contained sculpture collected from various ages. With the help of recently discovered documents and a reconsideration of various works of art, this study of Perugino highlights the natural interconnection between painting and sculpture (and painters and sculptors) in the Italian Renaissance workshop. 

LUBA FREEDMAN - Michelangelo's Reflections on Bacchus (pp. 121—135)

This essay offers a new reading of Michelangelo's Bacchus in the light of reconsidered documents, such as the artist's biographies, descriptions of the statue as seen in Rome, and drawings, as well as visual and literary sources, both classical and Renaissance, that might have been available to the sculptor. Meant to substitute an antique statue, Michelangelo's Bacchus provokes comparing images of the god of wine in ancient texts and works of art with the conceptions of this deity prevalent in the sculptor's ambiance. The inclusion of a panisc points to the dormant bestial forces that since early Christianity had been taught to be repressed in humans. The statue appears simultaneously ancient and modern, with its pagan figures addressing themselves to a Christian beholder. 

CLAUDIA CIERI VIA, IRENE GUIDI - Un "Parnaso musicale" per una casa di artista in Firenze (pp. 137—154)
A "Musiacal Parnassus" for a House of an Artist in Florence
An unrecorded fresco representing the Parnassus decorates the ceiling of a small room on the second floor of the house of Federico Zuccari in Florence. The decoration, executed between the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, is typical of the figurative tradition which flourished in Rome and Florence at that time. 
The decoration of ceilings in the Early Renaissance belonged to a minor genre of figurative production; however, mythological themes gave prestige to the genre, opening its repertoire to the inclusion of subject matter according to the ancient theory of decorum. The ceiling decoration is the second in a series of new discoveries in the house of Federico Zuccari. The decoration of the room as a whole can be attributed to Bernardino Pocetti and his workshop. The representation of the Parnassus, located at the centre of the ceiling, is flanked by four scenes representing the story of Perseus, according to the version by Ovid in Book IV of the Metamorphoses. Other figures, symbolizing the four elements, lead the viewer to read the frescoes as a vision of cosmic harmony. 
The authors argue that the decoration of the small room of Casa Zuccari was intended to represent just such a conception of music, though one more specifically practical than theoretical. A reference to theatrical interludes connects the figurative and musical representation, which includes various musical instruments and scores. This subject matter suggests a precise function for the saletta as a private space used not only for meditation, but also for the performance of concerts, according to the musical vocation of its owner, Giovan Battista Poggi.
ALISON LUCHS - The London Woman in Anguish, attributed to Cristoforo Solari: Erotic Pathos in a Renaissance Bust (pp. 155—176)

A remarkable alabaster bust of a semi-clad woman in the Victoria and Albert Museum, formerly attributed to Tullio Lombardo and more recently to Cristoforo Solari, has long been identified as A Virtue. Comparison with sculpture from the Lombardo circle and with early cinquecento northern Italian painting suggests it is instead a uniquely expressive treatment of a distraught antique heroine, possibly Lucretia. Arguments for the Solari attribution are discussed in light of recent research on this important Lombard sculptor, whose documented works on classical subjects are all lost. 

GOLDA BALASS - Five Hierarchies of Intercessors for Salvation: The Decoration of the Angels' Chapel in the Gesu (pp. 177—208)

The Angels' Chapel in the Church of the Gesù in Rome was painted in the last decade of the 16th century. While the iconographic program of the chapel's decoration reflects the tenets of the Counter-Reformation Church, it is also notably congruent with Jesuit concerns. This article provides a detailed interpretation of the chapel's fresco cycle within two interdependent contexts: the Catholic-Protestant conflict over cardinal theological issues, and the Catholic belief in the hierarchical intercession for salvation. Furthermore, the discussion provides an understanding of how the visual arts served the post-Tridentine Church. 

GUSTAV MEDICUS - Some Observations on Domenico Beccafumi's Two Fall of the Rebel Angels Panels (pp. 209—218)
Domenico Beccafumi's two Fall of the Rebel Angels panels are discussed. An unfinished figure in the lower right corner of the Pinacoteca Fall is related to two works by Beccafumi, executed between 1519-1523, confirming an early 1520s date of execution for the panel. The more structured second version in San Niccolò is proposed to derive from a traditional Sienese typology for the Fall of the Rebel Angels theme. The commingling of angels alongside nudes with no angelic/demonic markers in both panels is connected to theological and literary traditions surrounding the Fall of the Angels which intermingle men and angels.
SALVATORE PISANI - Probleme im Medium der Anschauung: Giambattista Vicos 'Wahrer Homer' im Frontispiz der Scienza Nuova (pp. 219—230)
Problems of the Way of Illustrating: Giambattista Vico's 'True Homer' in the Frontispiece of Scienza Nuova
The central theme of the second edition of Scienza Nuova (1730) by G. B. Vico is discovery of the True Homer, that is, the discovery that Homer was in fact not a historical personality but only a myth. The frontispiece of Scienza Nuova shows Homer as a statue. The paper discusses - on the one hand - the medial aspects of the illustration, with regard to understanding the statue as a singular collective, and on the other hand - the unusual and incomprehensible iconography of the True Homer, where the author tries to define, to what extent it was an independent creation of Domenico Antonio Vaccaro, the artist who designed the frontispiece. Throughout the whole paper the central question, of how far and how well the philosophical thought of the book fits in a given artistic form is investigated, and what breaches result from this relationship of the idea and the form. 
TINA MARLOWE STORKOVICH - Medicine by Gustav Klimt (pp. 231—252)

In 1894 the Austrian Ministry of Culture and Education commissioned Gustav Klimt produce a group of paintings that would allegorize the Faculties of the University and the paintings were to be installed in the University's Graduation Hall. Thus Klimt produced The Faculty Pictures - Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence. One hundred years have passed since Klimt created his masterpieces, yet they have not received the attention they deserve - few critical analyses of the paintings have revealed their intellectual depth and formal sophistication. This essay, meant as a partial remedy, analyzes Medicine. Here we discuss Klimt's morphology, aesthetic paradigm, and juxtaposition of vernacular and classical traditions. Also, we demonstrate that photography had an impact on Klimt and hypothesize that Muybridge's serial photography may have provided him with a catalyst. In conclusion we propose that Medicine embodies the tradition of German Transcendental Idealism as expounded by Schopenhauer in his book which shaped nineteenth century aesthetics - The World as Will and Representation