232 x 252 mm
Special issue in honour of Paul Joannides - Guest editors: Piers Baker-Bates, Helen Glanville, Anne Varick Lauder, Giorgio Tagliaferro, Lucia Tantardini, Matthias Wivel
232 x 252 mm
Special issue in honour of Paul Joannides - Guest editors: Piers Baker-Bates, Helen Glanville, Anne Varick Lauder, Giorgio Tagliaferro, Lucia Tantardini, Matthias Wivel
This volume of essays dedicated to Paul Joannides, Emeritus Professor of Art History, comes three years after his retirement from the History of Art Department, University of Cambridge, where he taught from 1973. The initiative arose from a group of former doctoral students who wished to express their appreciation and admiration and to recognize with this modest gesture, his invaluable contribution to the field of Art History and to their formation as art historians. When friends, colleagues and students from diverse disciplines and affiliations – universities, museums, art galleries and the private sector – were asked to contribute essays in his honour, the response was overwhelming. This volume, which has been produced unbeknown to Professor Joannides, expresses the high esteem in which he is held.
Raised in North London and educated at Haberdashers’ Aske’s School in Hertfordshire, Professor Joannides completed his undergraduate degree in English and Fine Arts at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1968. He earned his PhD at Trinity in 1974 with his thesis, English Literary Subject-matter in French Painting 1800–1863, supervised by Lee Johnson, renowned expert on Delacroix, who remained his mentor and close friend. In Cambridge he worked as University Assistant Lecturer (1973–1978), University Lecturer (1978–2002), Reader in the History of Art (2002–2004) and finally Professor of the History of Art (2004–2013) with Emeritus status in 2014. He taught a range of courses on Italian Renaissance Art in addition to French Neo-Classicism, Romanticism, Realism and Impressionism and lectured widely on these topics at universities, international conferences and symposia. Professor Joannides is above all a connoisseur of paintings and drawings and an acknowledged expert on the work of such artists as Masaccio, Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian, and Sebastiano del Piombo as well as a specialist on others including Fra Angelico, Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci. His scholarly opinion continues to be sought by museums and the art trade alike.
Extremely prolific, Professor Joannides’ formidable list of publications – books, essays, exhibition catalogues, articles and reviews – is vast and wide-ranging. He has written extensively on Italian Renaissance Art. His major publications include The Drawings of Raphael (1983), Masaccio and Masolino (1993), Titian to 1518 (2001) and inventory catalogues of drawings by and after Michelangelo in the Louvre, Paris (2003) and the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (2007). Professor Joannides has also written on French painting of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Renoir: Life and Works, 2000) as well as on film and contemporary British art. He has also authored and contributed to, numerous exhibition catalogues. Scholarly yet accessible, his wonderful literary style, his light and witty pen, go hand in hand with his ability to hone in on the essence of his chosen subjects. A complete list of Professor Joannides’ published work is appended to the end of this volume.
We would be remiss not to mention the professional and personal qualities of Professor Joannides admired by so many. Those of us fortunate to have studied under his guidance or spent time with him have benefitted immeasurably from his keen eye, wide-ranging knowledge and generosity. He continues to share his talents with many in his retirement. Professor Joannides’ visual acuity, penchant for detail and gift for concise and vivid descriptions may be related, in part, to his keen interest in film. As an undergraduate, he was an active member of the Cambridge Film Society, serving as editor of its Programme in 1966–1967. He published articles in Sight and Sound (1970–1971) and The Cambridge Quarterly (1984), the latter on the work of Francis Ford Coppola. In fact, his first publications were about film and he remains to this day extremely knowledgeable on the subject with a special interest in film noir.
Professor Joannides’ interest in Italian Renaissance Art, specifically drawings, was likely kindled by Michael Jaffé, who taught at the History of Art Department in Cambridge and was later Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum. Professor Jaffé, an expert on Northern and Renaissance drawings, was instrumental in making the Fitzwilliam Museum collections central to teaching in the History of Art Department. During one of many visits to the Fitzwilliam Print Room, Professor Joannides was accused of studying drawings so intensely that according to the curator, he managed to ‘bore holes in them with his eyes.’ Indeed, in order to absorb fully the style of an artist’s draughtsmanship Professor Joannides would advise students to study drawings so intently that ‘your eyes become saturated.’ Leaving no stone unturned he also advocated a thorough study of all schools, including drawings attributed to other artists as well as rejected and anonymous drawings. All were potential sources for wrongly classed or undetected drawings. He equally revered the study of copies, which might reveal lost original compositions by an artist.
A frequent visitor to museums as well as private collections, salerooms and galleries, the London art trade has always been of great interest to Professor Joannides. He also encourages others to engage in it as well, inviting colleagues and friends to preview auctions in his company in his quest to detect interesting and newly discovered works of art. His late-lamented wife, Marianne Joannides, art historian and consultant in Old Master Drawings at Phillips, later Bonhams, in London, shared with him a passion for drawings and a curiosity for the unattributed. Indeed, Professor Joannides’ approach has left an indelible mark on his many students, colleagues and friends. Several of the papers in this volume reflect his influence.
Some of Professor Joannides’ other qualities include exacting standards, high principles and unwavering loyalty. Holding his own work to the highest standard he encourages others to do the same. Always questioning and not taking anything for granted, he would remind students to check and double-check (‘even worse than making your own mistakes is repeating those of others’) while treating his doctoral students as equals, often quoting their views. Indeed, he is fastidious about citing the observations of others, even non-art historian friends at exhibitions. Though candid in his opinions, his pastoral side was experienced by many. If one had any difficulty, be it a looming deadline or administrative conundrum, Professor Joannides would willingly avail himself to help a friend. Indeed, his candour, loyalty and capacity for friendship are among his much-cherished qualities.
This volume is the result of a collective effort of many. Several friends and colleagues who did not contribute essays were nevertheless instrumental in bringing it to fruition. We give our warm thanks to Victoria Avery, Giuliana Barone, Mary Beckinsale, Sir Timothy Clifford, Alec Cobbe, Dominique Cordellier, Carlo Corsato, Jill Dunkerton, Miguel Falomir, Emma Jones, Sylvia Ferino-Pagden, Thomas Heneage, Philip Lindley, Ana González Mozo, Martin Kemp, Thierry Morel, Rebecca Norris, Sir Nicholas Penny, Carol Plazzotta, Cristiana Romalli, Letizia Treves, Jon Whiteley, Linda Whiteley and Jonny Yarker. Our apologies in advance for any unintentional omissions.
Artibus et Historiae has always supported Professor Joannides’ work, particularly in recent years, by publishing four beautifully produced articles. We wish to extend our deepest gratitude to Professor Józef Grabski, Editor-in-chief, for publishing this volume of essays, and to Dr. Joanna Wolańska, Secretary of the Editorial Board, for its successful realisation. Special thanks are due to Nigel Pilkington and Morlin Ellis for their invaluable support and excellent advice.
Paul Joannides, a Connoisseur at Work
Any attempt to paint a portrait of Paul Joannides as a scholar in broad strokes brings us back to the time he spent in Paris in 1990–1991 (followed by several months in 1993), certainly the longest period that we have had the pleasure of seeing him and the privilege of sharing in his work. His wife, Marianne, accompanied him during this sojourn, made possible by the freedom accorded by a sabbatical year from his University commitments.
Already well familiar with the collection of drawings in the Louvre, he undertook, at our suggestion, a study of drawings by Michelangelo and his school in the Département des Arts Graphiques. This scholarly research, which quickly extended more broadly to the collection in general, resulted in a publication: the sixth volume of the Inventaire général des dessins italiens, published by the Réunion des Musées Nationaux in 2003 with the title, Michel-Ange, élèves et copistes. In a relatively short period of time, Paul Joannides succeeded in studying over four hundred sheets, including the copies after the master, as well as the works which he regarded as not by him.
In trying to sum up our impressions of Paul Joannides at the time, one realizes how valued his contribution was to the study of our drawing collection, long studied and continuously brought up to date. What we call the ‘reclassement’, that is to say the modifications – the attributions and reattributions – of works in artists’ portfolios, is the result of a broad collective effort, to which foreign scholars have long contributed. The presence of Paul Joannides in the Louvre, his ‘portrait’, belongs within this tradition of shared knowledge and intellectual rigour. But is it even possible to attempt a portrait of a scholar like Paul Joannides, in his objective quest for knowledge which rests on shifting sands of constant reappraisal? It would not suffice to focus only on the corpus of his discoveries to describe his personality. We also must attempt to understand the drawing itself, its sequence of notations, in order to come close to those who have studied it before us, sharing their doubts and hesitations. The hypotheses of Paul Joannides are marked by their relativity. As he himself affirms, they elude the idea that an attribution can ever be submitted to ‘absolute proof’. On the other hand, he presents the drawings, whoever the presumed author may be, attempting to analyse their possible role in the creation of a specific project. The evidence is subtle – the style, the pressure of the hand, the orientation of the sheets – all of which may provide evidence of their final destination be it, for example, a bas-relief or painting.
Paul Joannides presents forty-three drawings as originals in Michel-Ange, élèves et copistes. Seven of these represent recent discoveries, but three were attributed by him to the master for the first time. There is a connecting thread in the research of Paul Joannides: that of the reception of the work of Michelangelo, the way in which his sheets were copied, imitated, collected. For whom is the artist working? How does one recognise and define a youthful work? At what moment in time and how were the drawings assembled and used as models? In this way Paul Joannides arrives at a kind of ‘cartography’ of Michelangelo’s œuvre. Drawing on this, he would consider the role played by his few pupils, then to the artist’s followers. An additional group of twelve drawings, distinctly set apart from the copies, were presented in the volume with bold new attributions. For these works he argued at length, proposing to identify the hands of various artists including Piero d’Argenta, Pietro Urbano, Antonio Mini and Raffaello da Montelupo.
If one considers Paul Joannides’ place in this quest for ‘knowledge at all costs’, one would not limit oneself to the sum of his discoveries, even when these have significantly modified the old established order. Rather one would linger together with him in the questions that he has posed, which have often remained unanswered.
Eloquence in Raphael Drawings
In this paper, which presents aspects of our research for an exhibition to be held at the Ashmolean Museum and the Albertina in 2017, we examine Raphael’s drawings in relation to the concept of eloquence. Two types of eloquence emerge in this analysis: one permeating the court culture in which Raphael worked based on rhetoric and poetic theories of imitation, and the other type of material eloquence arising from Raphael’s handling of his drawing materials, and his pursuit through them of viable formal inventions. Although Raphael is more usually associated in discussions of art theory with a type of eclectic imitation predicated on the ‘Idea’, close attention to the artist’s drawings reveals a process of revision and adaptation of motifs that calls into question this ‘hylomorphic model’ of creativity, and places him closer to Pietro Bembo’s view that creativity derives from ‘long labour, practice and exercise’.
A Later Chalk Drawing by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano was a proficient draftsman in chalks early in his career, but on the death of his master Raphael in 1520, he apparently abandoned chalk as a primary drawing medium. However a sheet in the British Museum, previously attributed to Raphael, seems to be a later chalk drawing by Giulio, in preparation for his frescoes in Palazzo Te, Mantua. The article argues the case for this attribution and considers what this sheet tells us about Giulio's later drawing practice more generally.
Battista Franco’s Osimo Polyptych and its Preparatory Drawings
Celebrated draughtsman, painter and printmaker, Battista Franco (c. 1510–1561), enjoyed a well-documented career in Rome, Florence, Urbino and his native Venice where he returned for the remaining decade of his life. However, even his well-informed biographer, Giorgio Vasari, was unaware of his trip to Osimo, a small town in the province of Ancona in the Marche. Franco was commissioned by an Osimo confraternity in 1547 to decorate an altarpiece and ciborium for the main altar of the cathedral. Though now divested of its original trappings, the resulting fourteen-panel polyptych, preserved today in the cathedral museum, remains nonetheless an impressive work, but one little-known outside specialist circles. The identification of ten preparatory drawings for it published here together for the first time, allow for a renewed appreciation of the altarpiece and the artistic process behind its creation. In several respects these studies, important additions to Franco’s corpus of autograph drawings, do not bear the typical hallmarks of his graphic style as shown by the variety of names under which they were found from Moncalvo to Agostino Carracci. This new crop of studies adds a new dimension to our understanding of Franco’s ever varied draughtsmanship as it evolved in the latter half of the 1540s. Considered together with the related panels, they present an artist embracing not only the work of Michelangelo but that of Raphael and Polidoro da Caravaggio as well.
Vincenzo Catena and Giorgione, Reconsidered
The first dated reference to the Venetian painter Vincenzo Catena appears in an enigmatic inscription on the verso of Giorgione’s so-called Laura in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, that reads: ‘1506 adj primo zugno fo fatto questo de mā de maistro zorzi da chastel fr[ancho] | cholega da maistro vizenzo chaena ad instanzia de miser giacomo […]’ (‘On the first of June 1506 this was made by the hand of master Giorgio from Castelfranco, colleague of master Vincenzo Catena, at the request of misser Giacomo […]’; the last name of ‘miser giacomo’ is illegible and his identity has yet to be determined). Although the inscription, which is generally believed to be contemporary with the picture, is evidence of a connection between the two painters, it leaves the precise nature of their relationship open to speculation. This article investigates the ties between Giorgione and Catena – a relatively wealthy member of the cittadini class who counted among his acquaintance such figures as Antonio di Marsilio, Giovanni Battista Cipelli, otherwise known as Battista Egnazio, Marcantonio Michiel and Pietro Bembo, to name but a few – and explores the extent to which Catena’s later work was influenced by Giorgione, a claim so often made in the literature.
A New Half-length by Palma Vecchio: Two Women and a Shepherd
This paper presents a new painting by Palma, with an ambiguous subject of a type characteristic of Venetian painting in the first three decades of the sixteenth century. The composition, showing three secular figures in half length, and the themes of love, music and the pastoral, are closely associated both with Giorgione and the early Titian, but the present painting is typical of Palma both in its style, and its more explicit eroticism. Several of the poses represent variations on other, well-known works by the artist, and it is argued that it dates from the mid- or late 1520s, shortly before his death in 1528.
Visionary and Monumental: Sebastiano, Michelangelo and the Borgherini Chapel in San Pietro in Montorio
In the Borgherini Chapel in San Pietro in Montorio Sebastiano del Piombo and Michelangelo invent a new pictorial language to express the spiritual ideals of the Amadeiti friars, creating images of great evocative power. It has not been noted hitherto that the Borgherini Chapel contains the first large-scale depiction of the Flagellation: a subject that exemplifies the modern devotion to the cult of the Body of Christ as an emphatic meditation on the sufferings of the Passion, as well as a metaphor for the sins of the Church. A new devotional source sheds light on the iconographic significance of the Flagellation, recalling the Lombard patronage of Bernardino Carvajal and the venerable Arcangela Panigarola, who was closely connected to the Amadeiti friars. Ultimately, the Transfiguration – prophecy of the second coming of Christ and long-awaited reform of the Church – triumphs over the sorrowful Flagellation.
A Portrait of a Lady by Sebastiano del Piombo and his Reputation in Great Britain
The recent appearance at Christie’s, London, in July 2015 of the so-called Portrait of a Lady by Sebastiano del Piombo from the Kennet collection seemed to me an appropriate starting point for a contribution to a Festschrift for Professor Paul Joannides. Though a heavily damaged and much disputed work, it can contribute much to our understanding of Sebastiano’s art. This article will consider first the Portrait of a Lady itself, and the handful of other versions, and what it can tell us about not only Sebastiano’s female portraiture more generally but also the intriguing questions surrounding copies and versions of his late work and whether or not these were even intended as portraits. This Portrait of a Lady, however, is but the latest in a long line of works by Sebastiano that were once in the United Kingdom but are no longer and, while a recent fashion for reception studies has touched on his contemporaries such as Titian, it has not yet reached Sebastiano. This paper, therefore, seeks to address this lacuna by considering the fluctuations of Sebastiano’s critical reputation in Britain, where, by the mid-nineteenth century, a majority of his paintings were housed. The arrival of the Raising of Lazarus with the Orleans collection, which became Number 1 in a new National Gallery in London, had in particular stimulated debate about Sebastiano’s qualities as an artist. This essay discusses not only the critical responses to his various paintings in the British Isles but also the misattributions that had arisen by the early nineteenth century between the work of Sebastiano and that of other artists, principally Raphael and Giorgione, especially for his portrait œuvre. Finally, the tortuous history of re-constructing a coherent structure for Sebastiano’s career that occupied much of the twentieth century will therefore in part be traced.
Building the Brand. Titian Self-Portraits
This article presents a survey of Titian’s activities as a self-portraitist: its origins, motivations, typology and development. Although only two extant Self-Portraits by Titian – presently in Berlin and Madrid – can plausibly be described as autograph, the evidence provided by numerous copies still in existence, and others recorded in the sources or in prints, demonstrates that his activity in the field was a sustained and relatively prolific one. A preliminary history of these is here proposed in the identification of a number of self-portrait types, all of which are traceable back to his studio and from which almost all subsequent portraits of the master are derived.
Simultaneously, the paper treats for the first time in detail a largely overlooked engraving after a lost self-portrait by the master. The life and career of its author, the Flemish artist Lambert Suavius, are examined as are the possible meanings of the date of 1539, included in the second state of the engraving. Unlikely to be the date of the print itself, it is here proposed that it points to an early painted self-portrait that predates any mentioned in the sources and helps localise more firmly Titian’s initial activities in the field in the 1530s, motivated by his knighthood of 1533 and stimulated by his association with Pietro Aretino and his literary circle.
Titian’s Portraits of Grand Chancellor Andrea de’ Franceschi
Andrea dei Franceschi, Grand Chancellor of Venice from 1529 until his death in 1552, owned two portraits of himself by Titian. This paper considers these portraits in the light of his public and private life. His likeness also appears in a triple portrait attributed to Titian, now in the Royal Collection, of Andrea de’ Franceschi, Titian and Another Man. The third figure in this portrait, painted out at some point in its history, was revealed during the restoration completed in 1958. The paper discusses this perplexing picture in the context of its adoption by Alan Bennett in his play Question of Attribution as a metaphor for the complex career of Anthony Blunt, then Keeper of the Queen’s Pictures.
Procurators on the Threshold: Sitters and Beholders in Palma Giovane’s Crociferi Entombment
The Entombment of Christ, painted by Palma Giovane for the Oratorio dei Crociferi in Venice (1590), contains the portraits of two Procurators of St Mark, whose unusual position at the back implicitly involves them directly in the sacred narrative. This article examines how the painting elaborates on typical strategies of Venetian institutional portraits to place the sitters on a threshold between fictive and real, and give them an intermediary function between the viewers and the scene. It argues that, by means of a well-thought design, the sitters spur the beholder, that is the destitute women of the adjoining hospice, to simultaneously worship Christ’s body and acknowledge the Procurators’ role as the administrators of the Oratory. The engagement with the spectator is thus exploited to symbolise the renewal of the endowment to the hospice through the ritual re-enactment of the Eucharistic mystery. While the past of the sacred narrative and the present of the spectator converge, the act of beholding formalises the relationship between those who are guarantors and those who are guarantees. Moreover, a replica of the painting, where a couple of anonymous donors have replaced the Procurators and pray before Christ, suggests that Palma’s painting was recognised as a model for social emulation, where the Procurators are acknowledged for their dignity.
More on Stefano Cernotto
Following an earlier paper, this contribution presents a group of further paintings by Stefano Cernotto. With these new additions, the number of works attributed to him rises to about 50. They further support the idea that the painter was a pupil of Titian, and not a close follower of Bonifacio Veronese, as traditionally believed. In a couple of cases, a date or the period of time in which they were created, is suggested by their features: a canvas in Ottawa with St Sebastian and St Roch may refer to the plague of 1528, whereas another at Woburn Abbey seems to coincide with the ‘Maniera moderna’ coming to Venice from Rome and Florence in 1539–1540.
Of further interest is the fact that we now have a group of copies after Stefano Cernotto, something that earlier seemed inconceivable. The reason for this is that their prototype was a lost painting either by Titian himself (known in 1815 in the famous Albarelli collection in Verona), or by Cernotto, but reputed to be by Titian. This raises the question of the fluctuations of Cernotto’s fame over the centuries, and the degree to which he has been confused with other members of Titian’s workshop.
‘il che esso Aurelio ebbe a dire che non aveva veduto mai cosa più rara al mondo per paesi’: Aurelio Luini and Titian
The 1540s and 1550s witnessed the highest presence of Veneto artists in Milan. This phenomenon responded to various factors, such as the cultural orientation of the ruling elite headed by the governor Alfonso d’Avalos and the arrival in Milan of Titian’s bewildering Crowning with Thorns for Santa Maria delle Grazie (1542). This period also coincided with Aurelio Luini’s formative years and such ‘Venetian vogue’ left an indelible mark on the receptive mind of the young Milanese artist. Through selected examples from Aurelio’s graphic and painted work, this paper explores the ramification of Titianesque elements in Aurelio’s œuvre.
The View from Behind: Veronese, Giulio Romano and the Rape of Europa
During his early career Paolo Veronese assimilated many diverse sources, including the work of Giulio Romano. A sheet of studies by Veronese for The Anointing of David in Vienna also includes a copy of Hieronymus Cock’s 1551 engraving of the Forum of Nerva and sketches for a Rape of Europa, which is either lost or was never carried out. Veronese seems to have been trying to establish a way of showing the sequential episodes of the myth, starting with Europa’s beguilement by Jupiter disguised as a bull and finishing with her abduction across the sea. In these sketches Veronese explored the possibilities of showing a nude Europa from behind on the back of the bull. This exceptionally rare type of depiction had already been done in stucco by Giulio Romano at the Villa Madama in Rome and the Palazzo Te in Mantua. It seems likely that Veronese had access to Giulio’s drawing for the Palazzo Te version. One can point to several other instances when the young Veronese was inspired by Giulio’s drawings, including The Conversion of the Magdalene and the frescoes at La Soranza. He also seems to have known a drawing by Giovanni Battista Bertani for The Rape of Europa frescoed in Palazzo Ducale in Mantua.
A Discordant Note. An Alteration Made by Annibale Carracci in his Paintings in the Galleria Farnese Betrayed by the Incorrect Posture of the Musician
In the Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne painted by Annibale Carracci on the vault of the Farnese Gallery, the faun beside Silenus is playing the white cornet, but with an incorrect posture. Examining the preparatory drawings for the figure it is clear that initially, Annibale chose a double aulos as the instrument (see, for example, in the preliminary study in the Albertina, Vienna, inv. 23370). In a further drawing for the faun in the Louvre, Paris (inv. 7316), the aulos has already been changed into the cornet, but it is evident that the model was not in fact holding the instrument correctly, and that it was only added as a casual element in order to complete the study. The alteration was probably due to the intention to substitute what had been an antiquarian choice (the aulos), with the most fashionable musical instrument of the sixteenth century (the cornet), but the artist failed to adapt the figure to the pose appropriate for playing that instrument.
Interpretations of Raphael’s Uffizi St John the Baptist by Bolognese Rivals Guido Reni and Guercino
At different moments in their careers, two rival Bolognese painters, Guido Reni (1575–1642) and Guercino (1591–1666), had their imaginations fired by the composition of Raphael’s Uffizi St John the Baptist. That they should have taken inspiration from Raphael’s famous figure at all shows how the gap between Italian Renaissance and Baroque painting was not as wide as is sometimes thought and that it was sometimes bridged by borrowings and adaptations of this sort. Few seventeenth-century painters could have seen Raphael’s canvas in the original because of its inaccessibility at the heart of the Medici palace. So for nearly three centuries, the daring pose of Raphael’s youthful St John was known only through a chiaroscuro woodcut by Ugo da Carpi (c. 1502–1532), datable soon after Raphael’s death in 1520.
In his Uffizi painting Raphael has taken on the difficult challenge of representing the male nude out-of-doors, in the half-light. In Reni’s St John the Baptist in the Dulwich College Picture Gallery, London, datable 1635–1636, and in Guercino’s picture of the same subject in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, painted in 1641, the pose of the protagonist was indebted to Raphael’s prototype, but the level of the surrounding light has been raised. This accentuates the contrasts between light and shadow across the body, reducing the play of mid-tones in the intervening areas, which made the task of both Reni and Guercino that bit more difficult than that of their famous predecessor. Both have, of course, profited from the opportunity to show his prowess in modulating the musculature over a young man’s physique.
Unpublished drawings by each painter, which toy with ideas based on Raphael’s prototype while the draughtsman was planning an independent figure of the saint of his own, are discussed to document the link between the Renaissance master and his seventeenth-century successors.
Aspect and Prospect – Poussin’s Triumph of Silenus
This essay looks at the Triumph of Silenus in the context of Poussin’s definitions of how to look at a painting – Aspect and Prospect, and the Modes, arguing that the material aspects of this Triumph is an expression of the meaning of the painting, just as they are in other works by the artist. Poussin’s relationship to his materials is that of a poet towards words, as he himself says in a letter: to be manipulated to convey a particular emotion and message.
Some ‘Giorgiones’ in Eighteenth-Century England
Until the mid-nineteenth century Giorgione was largely an ahistorical figure, a construct of the imaginations and speculations of early writers such as Vasari and Ridolfi. Of the hundreds of paintings attributed to him between the seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries, very few were actually painted by him. This article considers three such paintings. All had been acquired by British collectors in Venice in the second half of the eighteenth century and brought to London for sale. Their owners, the Scots artist Gavin Hamilton, and the diplomats Sir James Wright and John Strange, thought highly of their acquisitions and priced them accordingly. But although the three paintings were painted by masters in the Veneto in the first half of the Cinquecento they are not by Giorgione. This article identifies the three paintings with works now in Jerusalem, Dublin and Philadelphia, charts their histories and considers them in the context of the eighteenth-century’s concept of Giorgione and in relation to other paintings attributed to Giorgione at the time.
Raphael at the Royal Academy: Giovanni Volpato’s modelli of the Vatican Stanze Rediscovered
In March 1842 a group of seventeen canvases, reduced copies of the Vatican Stanze, were donated to the Royal Academy of Arts in London. This article publishes the copies for the first time, identifying them as the modelli made by leading Roman painters in the 1770s for Giovanni Volpato’s engraved edition of Raphael’s frescoes. This article considers the context of their execution, the reception of Raphael in the eighteenth century and the ultimate purpose of these copies in the collection of the Royal Academy.
Robert-Fleury’s Delaroche and Delaroche’s Raphael
Like most of the prominent French artists of his period, Paul Delaroche was portrayed in a variety of media throughout the course of his life. The earliest record of his features can be found in representations of the studio of Baron Gros from the early 1820s. By the end of the 1830s, his celebrity as a leading painter practising the ‘genre historique’ had led to the creation of a series of portrait studies by lithographers which included a strong element of caricature. Such works not only reflected Delaroche’s portrayal of death scenes, but also the seemingly deliberate decision to identify himself with the clearly recognisable image of Napoleon, aspects of whose career he also brought to life in a number of major works from 1838 onwards.
Quite separate from this tendency, however, and uniquely sympathetic as a record by a close colleague, is the posthumous portrait of Delaroche painted by Robert-Fleury in 1857. The decision to pose the painter in a specific room in the Palais des Beaux-Arts must surely have taken into account the fact that his masterpiece, the Hémicycle des Beaux-Arts, lies just on the other side of the wall that we see in the portrait. Moreover, the fact that Delaroche is shown against the background of a celebrated contemporary print by Boucher-Desnoyers after Raphael’s Transfiguration alludes in two important respects to his achievement as an artist: first of all, as regards the arresting new characterisation of Raphael that Delaroche had devised for the Hémicycle after studying the supposed self-portrait of the artist in the Czartoryski collection; and secondly, as regards Delaroche’s profound conviction (noted by Robert-Fleury) that reproductive engravers would succeed in perpetuating the message of his own major works.
Luca della Robbia and his Books. The Renaissance Artist as a Devotee
In Biblioteca Marciana and Bibliothèque Nationale de France there are two manuscripts which thanks to the fifteenth-century inscriptions can be identified as once belonging to Luca della Robbia. We know very little about the artist’s biography and it is very tempting to view the books as an indication of his interests and perhaps as a source that informed his art. This article explores the possible impact of Jacopone da Todi’s Cantiche spirituali and Dante’s Vita nuova and Convivio on Luca della Robbia’s glazed terracotta devotional reliefs. The purity of his immaculate white glazes and the emphasis on the mystery of Incarnation and the Virgin’s central role in the history of salvation might have been nourished by those texts, which we know Luca had among his possessions. Moreover, the examination of the surviving manuscripts sheds a new light on the place of personal piety of the artist in his artistic practice. Considering the unparalleled popularity of Della Robbia’s devotional sculptures in Renaissance Italy it is important to evaluate to what extent this was linked to their evident technical supremacy or to their strong spiritual charge, informed by various texts.
*items contributing new material
The Drawings of Raphael. With a Complete Catalogue, Oxford, 1983.
Masaccio and Masolino. A Complete Catalogue, London and New York, 1993.
Renoir: Life and Works, London, 2000.
Titian to 1518. The Assumption of Genius, New Haven, 2001.
Michel-Ange, élèves et copistes. Inventaire des Dessins Italiens, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2003.
Drawings by Michelangelo and his Followers in the Ashmolean Museum, Cambridge, 2007.
Reactions to the Master: Michelangelo’s Effect on Art and Artists in the Sixteenth Century, co-edited with F. Ames-Lewis, Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2003.
Essays in edited volumes
‘Leonardo and Tradition’, in Nine Lectures on Leonardo da Vinci, ed. by F. Ames-Lewis, London, 1990, pp. 22–31.
‘”Primitivism” in the Late Drawings of Michelangelo: the Master’s Construction of an Old-Age Style’, in Studies in the History of Art, 33, 1992, ed. by C. H. Smyth in collaboration with A. Gilkerson, Hanover, NH, pp. 245–261 (reprinted in Michelangelo: Selected Readings, ed. by W. E. Wallace, Hudson, CT, pp. 505–521).
‘An Engraving by Michelangelo’, in Studi di storia dell’arte in onore di Mina Gregori, Cinisello Balsamo, 1994, pp. 96–100.
‘El Greco’s Interest in Michelangelo’, in El Greco of Crete: Proceedings of the International Symposium held on the occasion of the 450th anniversary of the artist’s birth, Iraklion, Crete, 1–5 September, 1990, ed. by N. Hadjinicolaou, Iraklion, 1995, pp. 199–214.
‘Michelangelo and the Medici Garden’, in La Toscana al tempo di Lorenzo il Magnifico: politica, economia, cultura, arte: convegni di studi promosso dalle Università di Firenze, Pisa e Siena, 5–8 novembre, 1992, ed. by R. Fubini, 3 vols, Pisa, 1996, vol. I, pp. 23–36.
‘”Non volevo pigliare quella maniera”: Rosso and Michelangelo’, in Pontormo e Rosso. Atti del convegno di Empoli e Volterra progetto Appiani di Piombino. Proceedings of a conference, Empoli, 22 September, 1994 and Volterra, 23–24 September, 1994, ed. by R. P. Ciardi and A. Natali, Florence and Venice, 1996, pp. 136–139.
‘An Adaptation of a Drawing by Michelangelo Attributable to Bronzino’, in Gedenkschrift für Richard Harprath, ed. by W. Liebenwein and A. Tempestini, Munich and Berlin, 1998, pp. 201–206.
‘Classicità e classicismo nella pittura veneta del Cinquecento’, in La pittura nel Veneto, vol. III: Il Cinquecento, ed. by M. Lucco, Milan, 1999, pp. 1041–1078.
‘Delacroix and Modern Literature’, in The Cambridge Companion to Delacroix, ed. by B. S. Wright, Cambridge and New York, 2001, pp. 130–153.
‘Salviati and Michelangelo’, in Reactions to the Master. Michelangelo’s Effect on Art and Artists in the Sixteenth Century, ed. by F. Ames-Lewis and P. Joannides, Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2003, pp. 68–92.
‘Titian and Michelangelo/Michelangelo and Titian’, in The Cambridge Companion to Titian, ed. by P. Meilman, Cambridge and New York, 2003, pp. 121–145.
‘Michelangelo: Knowledge, Difference, Paradox’, in L’Abécédaire de Michel-Ange/The Little Book of Michelangelo, ed. by H. Sueur et al., Paris and London, 2003, pp. 5–21.
‘Some New Drawings by Perino del Vaga’, in Perino del Vaga, prima, durante, dopo. Atti delle giornate Internazionali di Studio, Genova, 26–27 maggio 2001, Palazzo Doria ‘Del Principe’, ed. by E. Parma, Genoa, 2004, pp. 14–26.
Entry on a new drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, in Disegno, giudizio e bella maniera: studi sul disegno italiano in onore di Catherine Monbeig Goguel, ed. by P. Costamagna et al., Milan, 2005, p. 27, no. 4.
‘Titian’s Repetitions’, in Titian: Materiality, Likeness, Istoria, ed. by J. Woods-Marsden, Turnhout, 2007, pp. 37–51.
‘Sebastiano’s “Venus and Adonis”’, in La Pietà di Sebastiano a Viterbo. Storia e tecniche a confronto, ed. by C. Barbieri et al., Rome, 2009, pp. 12–16.
‘The Birth of Venus, Alessandro Botticelli’, in What Makes a Masterpiece? Encounters with Great Works of Art, ed. by C. Dell, London, 2010, pp. 140–145.
‘Prefazione’ to Sebastiano del Piombo, i Ritratti: committenti, artisti e letterati nella Roma del cinquecento, ed. by C. Barbieri, Teramo, 2012, pp. 7–12.
‘On a War-Horse at Cascina’, in Michelangelo als Zeichner. Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums Wien, Albertina-Museum, 19.–20. November, 2010, ed. by C. Echinger-Maurach et al., Münster, 2013, pp. 237–251.
‘Afterthoughts on Late Raphael’, in Late Raphael. Proceedings of the International Symposium; Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, October 2012, ed. by M. Falomir, Madrid, 2013, pp. 165–171.
‘The Portraits of a Lady’, in Artistic Practices and Cultural Transfer in Early Modern Italy. Essays in Honour of Deborah Howard, ed. by N. Avcioğlu and A. Sherman, Farnham and Burlington, VT, 2015, pp. 233–241.
‘Drawings by Raphael and his immediate followers made for or employed for engravings and chiaroscuro woodcuts’, in Raffael als Zeichner/Raphael as Draughtsman. Die Beiträge des Frankfurter Kolloquiums, Ausstellungsbegleitendes Kolloquium im Städel Museum vom 18. bis 20. Januar 2013, ed. by M. Sonnabend and J. Jacoby, Frankfurt, 2015, pp. 149–166.
‘A New Drawing for National Gallery No. 1’, in Rethinking Renaissance Drawings: Essays in Honour of David McTavish, ed. by U. M. D’Elia, Montreal, Kingston and London, 2015, pp. 19–26.
Exhibitions and their catalogues
Michelangelo and his Influence: Drawings from Windsor Castle, exhibition of 68 drawings, circulated in three venues in the United States and two in the UK, October 1996–April 1998, Washington D.C. and London, 1996.
Raphael and His Age: Drawings from the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, exhibition of 57 drawings shown at the Cleveland Museum of Art, 25 August–27 October 2002 and the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, 1 May–1 July 2003, published in English and in French, Cleveland and Paris, 2002.
Raffael und Umkreis. Handzeichnungen aus der Sammlung Wolf Bürgi, Galerie Hans, Hamburg, December 2008 (introductory essay and 53 of 55 catalogue entries).
Titien: l’étrange homme au gant, Palais Fesch–Musée des Beaux-Arts, Ajaccio, 26 June–27 September 2010, Milan, 2010 (introductory essay: ‘Le jeune Titien portraitiste’, pp. 13–83).
Late Raphael/L’ultimo Raffaello/Le dernier Raphael, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 12 June–16 September 2012, and the Musée du Louvre, Paris, 8 October 2012–14 January 2013, Madrid, 2012 (organisation and catalogue in collaboration with Tom Henry).
A Michelangelo Discovery, The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 3 February–8 August 2015 (catalogue in collaboration with Victoria Avery), Cambridge, 2015.
Contributions to catalogues of exhibitions organised by other scholars (essays and entries)
Arte in Lombardia tra Gotico e Rinascimento, Palazzo Reale di Milano, 18 March–15 May, Milan, 1988 (introductory essay: ‘Masolino a Castiglione Olona: Il Battistero e la Collegiata’, pp. 284–296).
The Touch of the Artist: Master Drawings from the Woodner Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., 1 October 1995–28 January 1996, Washington and New York, 1995 (cat. entry 54: Alessandro Allori (after Michelangelo Buonarroti): The Fall of Phaeton).
Francesco Salviati (1510–1563) o la Bella Maniera/Francesco Salviati (1510–1563) ou la Belle Manière, Villa Medici, Rome, 29 January–29 March 1998, and the Musée du Louvre, Paris, 30 April–29 June 1998, ed. by C. Monbeig-Goguel, Milan and Paris, 1998 (introductory essay: ‘Salviati e Michelangelo’/’Salviati et Michel-Ange’, pp. 53–55, and cat. entries: 4, 5, 8, 49/50).
Giovinezza di Michelangelo, Palazzo Vecchio and Casa Buonarroti, Florence, 6 October–9 January 2000, ed. by K. Weil-Garris Brandt et al., Florence, 1999 (cat. entries: 13, 56–58, 62, 77).
L’Adolescente dell’Ermitage e la Sagrestia Nuova di Michelangelo, Casa Buonarroti, Florence, 9 May–10 July 2000, and the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, 12 September–12 November 2000, ed. by S. Androsov and U. Baldini, Florence, 2000 (cat. entries: 2, 8–11, 14–28).
Venere e Amore: Michelangelo e la nuova bellezza ideale/Venus and Love: Michelangelo and the new ideal of beauty, Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, 26 June–3 November 2002, ed. by F. Falletti and J. Katz Nelson, Florence, 2002 (cat. entries: 2–6, 8–9, 12, 21, 27, 29).
Michelangelo, Paris and Milan, 2003 (cat. entries by D. Cordellier based on those in P. Joannides, Michel-Ange, élèves et copistes. Inventaire des Dessins Italiens, Musée du Louvre, 2003), published in English, French and Italian (introductory essay: ‘Personifying the Good and Evil of all Humanity’, pp. 6–17).
Raffaello da Firenze a Roma, Galleria Borghese, Rome, 19 May–27 August 2006, ed. by A. Coliva, Milan, 2006 (cat. entries: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 16, 23–33, 35, 39, 41–47, 49).
Das Ewige Auge: Von Rembrandt bis Picasso. Meisterwerke aus der Sammlung Jan Krugier und Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski, Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Munich, 20 July–7 October 2007, ed. by C. Lange and R. Diederen, Munich, 2007 (cat. entry 23: Raphael: Amor und Psyche).
Sebastiano del Piombo. 1485–1547, Palazzo Venezia, Rome, 8 February–18 May 2008, and Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, 28 June–28 September 2008, ed. by C. Strinati et al., Milan, 2008 (essay: ‘Sebastiano as a Draughtsman’/’Sebastiano disegnatore’, pp. 37–43; cat. entries: 66, 68, 72–74, 76, 78–83, 85–87, 89–93, 95–101, 103–111; cat. entries: 67, 70, 84, 94 in collaboration with C. Barbieri).
Raffaello e Urbino: La formazione giovanile e i rapporti con la città natale, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino, 4 April–12 July 2009, ed. by L. Mochi Onori, Milan, 2009 (cat. entries: 45–47, 57, 65–70).
From Raphael to the Carracci: The Art of Papal Rome, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa 29 May–7 September 2009, ed. by D. Franklin, Ottawa, 2009 (cat. entry 18).
L’oeil et la Passion: Dessins italiens de la Renaissance dans les collections privées françaises, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen, 19 March–20 June 2011, ed. by C. Monbeig Goguel and P. Ramade, Paris and Caen, 2011 (cat. entries: 4: Giovanni Francesco Penni (with D. Love), 24: Daniele da Volterra and 46: Venetian School).
L’Ultimo Michelangelo: disegni e rime attorno alla Pietà Rondanini, Castello Sforzesco, Museo d’arte antica, Milan, 24 March–19 June 2011, ed. by A. Rovetta, Milan, 2011 (essay: ‘I Disegni Tardi di Michelangelo’, pp. 20–33).
De Heemskerck à Le Brun: les plus beaux dessins du Musée du Mont-de-Piété de Bergues, Salon du dessin, Palais de la Bourse, Paris, 28 March–2 April 2012, and at the Musée du Mont-de-Piété, Bergues, 5 May–30 September 2012, ed. by P. Descamps (cat. entry 1: Sebastiano del Piombo).
Houghton Revisited: The Walpole Masterpieces from Catherine the Great’s Hermitage, Houghton Hall, King’s Lynn, Norfolk, 17 May–29 September 2013, ed. by T. Morel, London and New York, 2013 (cat. entries: 27: Paolo Veronese and 65: Andrea del Sarto).
Master Drawings, Colnaghi, London, 2013, ed. by K. Bellinger and F. Härb, London, 2013 (cat. entry 1: Giulio Romano: Bacchus as Autumn).
Italian Master Drawings from the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, 25 January–11 May 2014, ed. by L. M. Giles et al., Princeton and New Haven (cat. entry 8: Michelangelo Buonarotti, Head of a Youth and Caricatural Head of an Old Man).
San Sebastiano: Bellezza e integrità nell’arte tra Quattrocento e Seicento, Castello di Miradolo, San Secondo di Pinerolo, 4 October 2014–8 March 2015, ed. by V. Sgarbi and A. D’Amico, Milan, 2014 (cat. entry 13: Titian: St Sebastian).
Dánae y Venus y Adonis: las primeras “poesías” de Tiziano para Felipe II, Boletín del Museo del Prado, Boletín del Museo del Prado, número extraordinario, to accompany an exhibition at the Prado, Madrid, 19 November 2014–1 March 2015, ed. by M. Falomir, Madrid, 2014 (Essay: ‘Dánae y Venus y Adonis: origen y evolución/Danaë and Venus and Adonis: Origin and Development’ (with M. Falomir), pp. 17–51/60–74).
Francis Bacon and the Masters, the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, 7 December 2014–8 March 2015, and the Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 17 April–26 July, 2015, ed. by T. Morel et al., London, 2014 (essay: ‘Bacon, Michelangelo and the Classical Tradition’, pp. 26–36).
Leonardo da Vinci and the Idea of Beauty, Muscarelle Museum of Art at the College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 21 February–5 April, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, 15 April–14 June 2015, ed. by J. Spike, Williamsburg and Florence, 2015 (essay: ‘Michelangelo and Leonardo’, pp. 42–47).
Leonardo da Vinci y la idea de la belleza, Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, 26 June–23 August 2015, ed. by J. Spike, Mexico City, 2015 (essay: ‘Miguel Angel y Leonardo’, pp. 61–69).
Drawn from the Antique: Artists and the Classical Ideal, the Teylers Museum Haarlem, 11 March–31 May, and Sir John Soane’s Museum London, 25 June–26 September 2015, ed. by A. Aymonino and A. Varick Lauder, London 2015 (editorial work).
Marcantonio Raimondi, Raphael and the Image Multiplied, the Whitworth Art Gallery, The University of Manchester, 30 September 2016 – 23 April 2017, ed. by E. H. Wouk, Manchester, 2016 (essay: ‘Dido and Lucretia: Raphael’s designs and Marcantonio’s engravings’, pp. 43–45 and cat. entries: no. 25 (with E. H. Wouk): Raphael: St John the Baptist (drawing), nos 79/80: Raimondi: Pietà (engraving) and no. 82: Raimondi: St Cecelia (engraving)).
Essay reprinted in Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, vol. 92, no. 2, Autumn 2016, pp. 45–53.
Articles in periodicals
‘A note on the Julius Tomb, 1513’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 113, no. 816, March 1971, pp. 149–150.
‘Michelangelo’s Medici Chapel: Some New Suggestions’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 114, no. 833, August 1972, pp. 541–551.
‘Towards the Dating of Géricault’s Lithographs’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 115, no. 847, October 1973, pp. 666–671. Reprinted in Théodore Géricault. The Graphic Work/L’oeuvre gravé, ed. by A. Hyman and L. Delteil, San Francisco, 2010.
‘A Byron Subject by Horace Vernet’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 116, no. 860, November 1974, pp. 668–671.
‘Some English Themes in the Early Work of Gros’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 117, no. 873, December 1975, pp. 774–785.
‘Delacroix, The Choc des Cavaliers Arabes and the Galerie des Beaux-Arts’, The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, vol. 35, 1977, pp. 93–97.
‘Michelangelo’s Lost Hercules’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 119, no. 893, August 1977, pp. 550–555.
‘A Source for Flaxman’ [Letter], The Burlington Magazine, vol. 122, no. 923, February 1980, p. 127.
‘A Supplement to Michelangelo’s Lost Hercules’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 123, no. 934, January 1981, pp. 20–23.
‘Michelangelo, Filippino Lippi and the Half-Baluster’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 123, no. 936, March 1981, pp. 153–154.
‘On the Chronology of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling’, Art History, vol. 4, issue 3, September 1981, pp. 250–253.
‘Two Bronze Statuettes and their relation to Michelangelo’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 124, no. 946, January 1982, pp. 3–8.
‘Giulio Romano and Penni’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 124, no. 955, October 1982, p. 634.
‘Colin, Delacroix, Byron and the Greek War of Independence’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 125, no. 965, August 1983, pp. 495–500.
‘Ideology and Idolatry’, The Cambridge Quarterly, XI, 3, 1983, pp. 390–410.
‘Les romans historiques de Sir Walter Scott et la peinture française, 1822–1863’ (with B. S. Wright), première partie, Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire de l’Art Français, année 1982 (1984), pp. 119–132.
‘The Northbrook Madonna’, Paragone, 411, March 1984, pp. 4–9.
‘Les romans historiques de Sir Walter Scott et la peinture française, 1822–1863’ (with B. S. Wright), deuxième partie, Bulletin de la Société de l’Histoire de l’Art Français, année 1982 (1985), pp. 95–115.
‘Raphael drawings’ [Letter], The Burlington Magazine, vol. 127, no. 983, February 1985, p. 93.
‘The Early Easel paintings of Giulio Romano’, Paragone, 425, July 1985, pp. 17–46.
‘A Masolino Partially Reconstructed’, Source: Notes in the History of Art, IV, 4, Summer 1985, pp. 1–5.
‘New Words in Old Bottles’, Cambridge Quarterly, XIV, 3, 1985, pp. 240–250.
‘Raphael and Giovanni Santi’, in Studi su Raffaello, ed. by M. Sambucco Hamoud and M. L. Strocchi, Florence, 1987, pp. 55–61.
‘Caravaggio, Caravaggio and Caravaggios’, Ideas and Production, VIII, 1988, pp. 67–76.
‘A Michelangelesque Copy after Raphael’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 130, no. 1024, July 1988, pp. 530–531.
‘Masaccio, Masolino and “minor” Sculpture’, Paragone, 451, September 1987 (published in July 1988), pp. 3–24.
‘The Colonna Triptych by Masolino and Masaccio: Collaboration and Chronology’, Arte Cristiana, vol. 76, no. 728, September–October 1988, pp. 339–346.
‘Leonardo da Vinci, Peter-Paul Rubens, Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret and the “Fight for the Standard”’, Achademia Leonardi Vinci, 1, 1988, pp. 76–86.
‘Paolo Uccello’s “Rout of San Romano”: a New Observation’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 131, no. 1032, March 1989, pp. 214–216.
‘A Portrait by Fra Carnevale’, Source: Notes in the History of Art, VIII, 3, Spring 1989, pp. 7–10.
‘Fra Angelico: Two Annunciations’, Arte Cristiana, vol. 77, no. 733, July–August 1989, pp. 303–308.
‘A Raphaelesque moment in the Veneto’, Arte Cristiana, vol. 78, no. 739, July–August 1990, pp. 267–271.
‘Masaccio: a Lost Painting and a Drawing’, Arte Cristiana, vol. 78, no. 741, November–December 1990, pp. 435–436.
‘Masaccio’s Brancacci Chapel. Restoration and Revelation’, Apollo, CXXXIII, 347, January 1991, pp. 26–32.
‘A Franciscan Altarpiece by Fra Angelico’ (with J. Henderson), Arte Cristiana, vol. 79, no. 742, January–February 1991, pp. 3–6.
‘Titian’s Daphnis and Chloe’, Apollo, CXXXIII, 352, June 1991, pp. 374–382.
‘La chronologie du tombeau de Jules II à propos d’un dessin de Michel-Ange découvert’, Revue du Louvre, 2, May 1991, pp. 33–42.
‘A “Last Supper” by the Young Jacopo Bassano and the Sequence of his Early Work’ (with M. Sachs), The Burlington Magazine, vol. 133, no. 1063, October 1991, pp. 695–699.
‘Some Borrowings and Non-Borrowings from Central Italian and Antique Art in the Work of Titian c.1510–1550’, Paragone, 487, September 1990 (published in September 1991), pp. 21–45.
‘A Newly Unveiled Drawing by Michelangelo and the Early Iconography of the Magnifici Tomb’, Master Drawings, 29, 3, Autumn 1991, pp. 255–262.
‘Titian’s Judith in its Context. The Iconography of Decapitation’, Apollo, CXXXV, 361, March 1992, pp. 163–170.
‘Paolo Uccello’s “Rout of San Romano”’ [Letter], The Burlington Magazine, vol. 134, no. 1069, April 1992, p. 249.
‘Creative Distortion in the Renaissance: Lippi, Leonardo and Parmigianino’, Apollo, CXXXVI, 368, October 1992, pp. 239–246.
‘Daniele da Volterra’s ‘Dido’’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 135, no. 1089, December 1993, pp. 818–819.
‘A propos d’une sanguine nouvellement attribuée à Michel-Ange (1475–1564). La connaissance des dessins de l’artiste en France au XVIe siècle’, Revue du Louvre, 3, June 1994, pp. 15–29.
‘Two Topics in the Early Work of Titian’, Apollo, CXL, 392, October 1994, pp. 17–27.
‘Bodies in the Trees: A Mass-Martyrdom by Michelangelo’, Apollo, CXL, 393, November 1994, pp. 3–14.
‘Drawings by Francesco Salviati and Daniele da Volterra: Additions and Subtractions’, Master Drawings, 32, 3, Fall 1994, pp. 230–251.
‘Raphael, His Studio and his Copyists’, Paragone, 523–525, September–November 1993 (published in April 1995), pp. 3–29.
‘Late Botticelli: Archaism and Ideology’, Arte Cristiana, vol. 83, no. 768, May–June 1995, pp. 163–178.
‘A Drawing by Michelangelo for the Lantern of St Peter’s’, Apollo, CXLII, November 1995, pp. 3–6.
‘Tesserae in a vast mosaic: Two Fragmentary Drawings by Michelangelo’, Apollo, CXLII, November 1995, pp. 7–9.
‘Giulio Romano’s Madonna at Apsley House’ (with P. Young), The Burlington Magazine, vol. 137, no. 1112, November 1995, pp. 728–736.
‘A Subject from Thomas Gray by Girodet’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 127, March 1996, pp. 119–124.
‘An Overlooked Guercino Looked Over: the Place of St Augustine in the Artist’s Œuvre’, Apollo, CXLIII, 411, May 1996, pp. 18–19.
‘On the recto and on the verso of a sheet of drawings by Michelangelo at Princeton’, The Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, 54, 2, 1995, pp. 2–11.
‘Michelangelo: The Magnifici Tomb and the Brazen Serpent’, Master Drawings, 34, 2, Summer 1996, pp. 148–167.
‘Una copia di un’opera perduta di Battista Zelotti e un suo disegno autografo’, Arte Veneta, 49, 1996, pp. 51–54.
‘Michelangelo bronzista: Reflections on his Mettle’, Apollo, CXLV, 424, June 1997, pp. 11–20.
‘A Drawing by Raphael’, Phillips, London, sale catalogue, 3 July, 1997, lot 120, pp. 63–65.
‘An Antique Source for Titian and Michelangelo, Apollo, CXLVI, 427, September 1997, pp. 14–16.
‘Spiritual Intensity and Consolation: A Late Drawing by Michelangelo’, Sotheby’s Preview, January 1998, pp. 12–14.
‘A Putto by Correggio’, Apollo, CXLVII, 432, February 1998, pp. 47–48.
‘Raphael and his Circle’, Paragone, 601, March 2000 (published January 2001), pp. 3–42.
‘Giulio Romano in Raphael’s Workshop’, Quaderni di Palazzo Te, 8, 2000, pp. 35–45.
‘On Michelangelo’s Stoning of St Stephen’, Master Drawings, 39, 1, Spring 2001, pp. 3–11.
“Unconsidered Trifles”: Copies after Lost Drawings by Michelangelo’, Paragone, 633, November 2002, pp. 3–17.
‘My favourite work’ [Titian’s Tarquin and Lucretia], Varsity, no. 578, 7 March 2003, p. a12.
‘Two Drawings related to Michelangelo’s Hercules and Antaeus’, Master Drawings, 41, 2, Summer 2003, pp. 105–118.
‘Michelangelo’s “Cupid”: a correction’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 145, no. 1205, August 2003, pp. 579–580.
‘Some Drawings by Michelangelo and his circle in the Prado’/‘Dibujos de Miguel Ángel y de su entorno en el Prado’ (with N. Turner), Boletín del Museo del Prado, XXI, 39, 2003, pp. 8–23 (English), 99–105 (Spanish).
‘Raphael: A Sorority of Madonnas’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 146, no. 1220, November 2004, pp. 749–752.
‘Titian in London and Madrid’, Paragone, 657, November 2004, pp. 3–30.
‘On, Around, and After a New Drawing by Raphael’, Master Drawings, 43, 3, Fall 2005, pp. 356–371.
‘More on Rubens’ interest in Michelangelo and Raphael’, Paragone, 677, July 2006, pp. 31–39.
‘Letter’ [addenda and corrigenda to the Louvre Inventaire], Master Drawings, 44, 3, Autumn 2006, pp. 372–374.
‘Titian and the Extract’, Studi Tizianeschi, 4, 2006, pp. 135–148.
‘”A Boy with a Bird” in the National Gallery: Two responses to a Titian Question’ (with J. Dunkerton), The National Gallery Technical Bulletin, 28, 2007, pp. 36–57.
‘A Drawing by Michelangelo Reappears’ (with V. Burnod), Master Drawings, 45, 2, Summer 2007, pp. 236–240.
‘A Bolognese Project by the Young Parmigianino’, Master Drawings, 46, 3, Autumn 2008, pp. 353–366.
‘Giulio and Titian’ [Letter], Master Drawings, 47, 2, Summer 2009, p. 237.
‘Battista Franco, meilleur dessinateur que peintre?’, Grande Galerie, Le Journal du Louvre, no. 10, dec/jan/fev 2009–2010, pp. 58–59.
‘Titian’s Vienna “Mars and Venus”: Its Lost Pendant and a Variant’, Paragone, 721, March, 2010, pp. 3–27.
‘More on Francesco Salviati as a Copyist’, Master Drawings, 48, 3, Autumn 2010, pp. 315–326.
‘Titian, Giorgione and the Mystery of Paris’, Artibus et Historiae, 61, 2010, pp. 99–114.
‘The Birth of Venus’, The Independent Magazine, 15 October 2010, pp. 40–41.
‘Une feuille de Michel-Ange au musée des Beaux-arts de Rennes’, Revue du Louvre et des musées de France, no. 1, 2011, pp. 56–62.
‘Further Considerations on the Pardo Venus’, Studi Tizianeschi, 6–7, 2011, pp. 71–77.
‘A New Drawing by Michelangelo’, Master Drawings, 49, 2, Summer 2011, pp. 159–162.
‘Giorgione’s “Madness of Nebuchadnezzar”’, Paragone, 741, November 2011, pp. 3–12.
‘Reflexivity and Involution in Sebastiano’, Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History, 81, 4, 2012, pp. 203–210.
‘A Portrait of “Girolamo Fracastoro” by Titian in the National Gallery’ (with J. Dunkerton and J. Fletcher), The Burlington Magazine, vol. 155, no. 1318, January 2013, pp. 4–15.
‘Nicolas Poussin’s Extreme Unction’, Cambridge Humanities Review, 3, Lent, 2013, pp. 5–7.
‘A Portrait by Titian of Girolamo Cornaro’, Artibus et Historiae, 67, 2013, pp. 239–249.
‘A Composition by Polidoro da Caravaggio Recomposed’, Master Drawings, 51, 2, Summer 2013, pp. 159–164.
‘A Painting by Titian from the Spanish Royal Collection at Apsley House’ (with R. Featherstone), Hamilton Kerr Institute Bulletin, 5, 2014, pp. 66–79.
‘Gianfrancesco Penni’s Two Versions of The Holy Family with Saint John and Saint Catherine/‘Dwie wersje obrazu Święta Rodzina ze świętym Janem Chrzcicielem i świętą Katarzyną Aleksandryjską Gianfrancesca Penniego’, Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie/Journal of the National Museum in Warsaw, N.S. 3 (39) 2014, pp. 232–244 (Polish), 245–254 (English).
‘An Engraving by Giulio Bonasone after a Drawing by Giulio Romano’, Print Quarterly, XXXII, 1, March, 2015, pp. 27–32.
‘A Marriage of St Catherine by Giulio Romano’, Paragone, 781, March 2015, pp. 13–17.
‘Revival or Continuity? Three Turns about Pontormo’, Artibus et Historiae, 71, 2015, pp. 91–112.
‘An Attempt to Situate Titian’s Paintings of the Penitent Magdalen in Some Kind of Order’, Artibus et Historiae, 73, 2016, pp. 157–194.
‘Titian’s ‘Danaë’: The Debate Continues’ (with M. Falomir), The Burlington Magazine, vol. 1359, no. 158, June 2016, pp. 415–419.
‘Titian’s Rokeby Venus and Adonis and the Role of Working Templates’ (with J. S. Turner), Studi Tizianeschi, 9, 2014 (published in 2016), pp. 48–76.
‘‘Titian’s Mistress’ at Apsley House’ (with S. Bayliss and A. Tate-Harte), Hamilton Kerr Institute Bulletin, 6, 2016, pp. 83–92.
‘On the unorthodox origin and Byzantine journey of the Lavenham Madonna’ (with C. Slottved Kimbriel), Hamilton Kerr Institute Bulletin, 6, 2016, pp. 104–115.
Exhibition reviews and review articles
*‘Ossian at the Grand Palais’ (with C. Sells), The Burlington Magazine, vol. 116, no. 855, June 1974, pp. 358–362.
*‘Michelangelo Drawings at the British Museum’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 117, no. 865, April 1975, pp. 257–264.
*‘The Giulio Romano Exhibition in Mantua’, Paragone, 475, September 1989 (published in August 1990), pp. 61–73.
*‘Savoldo: Minimalist Refinement’, Apollo, CXXXII, 341, July 1990, pp. 56–57.
*‘Titian: a call for natural light’, Apollo, CXXXII, 344, October 1990, pp. 267–269.
‘Hommage to Philip Pouncey’, Apollo, CXXXVI, 366, August 1992, pp. 123–124.
‘Titian’s century is Louvre director’s farewell’, The Art Newspaper, no. 28, May 1993, p. 9.
*‘Edinburgh Raphael’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 136, no. 1096, July 1994, pp. 474–475.
*‘Pierre-Paul Prud’hon in Paris’, Apollo, CXLVII, 432, February 1998, p. 60.
*‘Italian drawings in Weimar’, Apollo, CLI, 458, April, 2000, pp. 59–60.
‘Daniela da Volterra. Florence’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 146, no. 1210, 2004, pp. 56–58.
*‘Tiziano e il ritratto di Corte da Raffaello ai Caracci (Napoli, Museo di Capodimonte, 2006)’, Studi Tizianeschi, 4, 2006, pp. 184–187.
‘Splendeur de Venise. 1500–1600, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux et Caen, 2005–2006’, Studi Tizianeschi, 4, 2006, pp. 187–188.
‘La Sainte Anne, l’ultime chef-d’oeuvre de Léonard da Vinci’, Arte Lombarda, N.S. 164–165, 2012, 1–2, pp. 187–189.
‘Leonardo in Milan in London’, Paragone, 749, July 2012, pp. 51–66.
L. B. Ciulich and P. Barocchi: ‘I Ricordi di Michelangelo’, H. R. Mancusi-Ungaro, Jr.: ‘The Bruges Madonna and the Piccolomini Altar’ and F. Hartt: ‘The Drawings of Michelangelo’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 115, no. 842, May 1973, p. 332.
F. A. Trapp: ‘The Attainment of Delacroix’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 115, no. 845, August 1973, pp. 549–550.
*L. Eitner: ‘Géricault’s Raft of the Medusa’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 117, no. 864, March 1975, pp. 171–172.
J. Spector: ‘Delacroix: The Death of Sardanapalus’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, no. 878, May 1976, pp. 324–327.
H. Hibbard: ‘Michelangelo’ and C. de Tolnay: ‘Michelangelo, Sculptor, Painter, Architect’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, no. 879, June 1976, p. 426.
L. Steinberg: ‘Michelangelo’s Last Paintings’ and H. Utz: ‘Der Wiederentdeckte Herkules des Michelangelo’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 118, no. 883, October 1976, p. 712.
*C. de Tolnay, ‘Disegni di Michelangelo nelle collezioni italiane’, Art Bulletin, LVII, 1, March 1978, pp. 174–177.
‘Couture in Context’ [A. Boime: ‘Thomas Couture and the Eclectic Vision’], Art History, 4, 3, September 1981, pp. 332–334.
*C. de Tolnay: ‘Corpus dei disegni di Michelangelo’, The Art Bulletin, vol. LXIII, no. 4, December 1981, pp. 679–687.
*R. Wittkower: ‘Idea and Image: Studies in the Italian Renaissance’ and J. Wilde et al.: ‘Michelangelo. Six Lectures’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 123, no. 943, October 1981, pp. 620–622.
*L. Johnson: ‘The Paintings of Eugène Delacroix. A Critical Catalogue, 1816–1831’, Art History, 5, 3, September 1982, pp. 348–352.
‘Intensely Moving’ [J. Steer: ‘Alvise Vivarini, his art and Influence’], Art Book Review, vol. 1, no. 2, 1982, p. 76.
‘Venetian Valuables’ [D. Rosand: ‘Painting in Cinquecento Venice: Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto]’, Art Book Review, no. 4, 1983, pp. 25–26.
‘Michelangelo Shrunk’ [R. Liebert: ‘Michelangelo: A Psychoanalytic Study of his Life and Images’], Art Book Review, no. 5, 1983, p. 22.
‘Politics and Paint’ [A. Schnapper: ‘David’], Art Book Review, no. 5, 1983, pp. 29–30.
*‘Classic Romantic’ [L. Eitner: ‘Géricault, His Life and Work]’, Art Book Review, no. 5, 1983, pp. 30–32.
*‘A Royal Catalogue’ [J. Shearman: ‘The Early Italian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen’], Art Book Review, no. 6, 1983, pp. 48–49.
‘Given the Sack’ [A. Chastel: ‘The Sack of Rome, 1527’], Art Book Review, no. 6, 1983, p. 51.
R. Snell: ‘Théophile Gautier: A Romantic Critic of the Visual Arts’, Art History, 6, 2, June 1983, p. 252.
*Raphael centenary year publications, Italian Studies, 39, 1984, pp. 109–114.
L. Lepschy: ‘Tintoretto Observed. A Documentary Survey of Critical Reactions from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century’, The Modern Language Review, vol. 80, no. 1, January 1985, pp. 187–189.
R. Goffen: ‘Giovanni Bellini’, Apollo, CXXXI, 337, March 1990, pp. 212–213.
R. Lightbown: ‘Sandro Botticelli, Life and Work’, Apollo, CXXXI, 338, April 1990, pp. 277–278.
‘Jacopo Bellini: a Situation-Report’ [C. Eisler: The Genius of Jacopo Bellini], Apollo, CXXXI, 340, June 1990, pp. 437–438.
*C. G. Sciolla (ed.): From Leonardo to Rembrandt, Drawings from the Royal Library Turin, Apollo, CXXXIII, 349, March 1991, p. 214.
E. J. Mundy: ‘Renaissance into Baroque: Italian Master Drawings by the Zuccari, 1550–1600’, Apollo, CXXXIII, 351, May 1991, pp. 362–363.
‘Amputating Michelangelo’s corpus’ [A. Perrig: ‘Michelangelo’s Drawings: the Science of Attribution’], Apollo, CXXXV, 362, April 1992, pp. 265–266.
‘Countering Tuscano-centrism’ [M. Lucco (ed.): ‘La Pittura nel Veneto: Il Quattrocento’], Apollo, CXXXV, 364, June, 1992, pp. 406–407.
W. Hood: ‘Angelico at San Marco’, Apollo, CXXXVII, 376, June 1993, pp. 400–401.
P. L. Roberts: ‘Masolino da Panicale’, Apollo, CXXXIX, 386, April 1994, p. 79.
C. Farago: ‘Leonardo da Vinci’s Paragone: A Critical Interpretation with a new edition of the text in the Codex Urbinas’ and G. C. Maiorino: ‘Leonardo da Vinci: the Daedalian Mythmaker’, Renaissance Quarterly, XLVII, 3, Autumn 1994, pp. 718–721.
B. Alaoui et al.: ‘Delacroix in Morocco’, Art Book Review Quarterly, 19, Winter 1994, p. 1.
L. Eitner: ‘Stanford University Museum of Art. The Drawing Collection’, Master Drawings, 33, 4, Winter 1995, pp. 418–420.
D. Carrier: ‘Poussin’s Paintings. A Study in Art-Historical Methodology’, EMF: Studies in Early Modern France, 3, 1997, pp. 233–236.
S. F. Ostrow: ‘Art and Spirituality in Counter-Reformation Rome: the Sistine and Pauline Chapels in S. Maria Maggiore’, Speculum, vol. 73, no. 4, October 1998, pp. 1158–1160.
Review of numerous publications on Géricault, Print Quarterly, XVI, 1, March 1999, pp. 81–82.
*‘The great seducer still safe with his secrets’ [D. Ekserdjian: ‘Parmigianino’], The Art Newspaper, no. 176, January 2007, p. 38.
‘An admirable monograph on Giovanni Bellini (as long as you ignore the typos?)’ [O. Bätschmann: ‘Giovanni Bellini’], The Art Newspaper, no. 193, July 2008, p. 43.
‘Giving a context to the art of Venice’ [P. Humfrey (ed.): ‘Venice and the Veneto’], The Art Newspaper, no. 196, November 2008, p. 54.
M. Hall: ‘The Sacred Image in the Age of Art’, Art and Christianity, 68, Winter 2011, p. 16.
‘Another Michelangelo’ [M. Gayford, ‘Michelangelo: His Epic Life’], Apollo, CLXXIX, 618, March 2014, pp. 192–193.
M. Cole: ‘Ambitious Form: Giambologna, Ammanati and Dante in Florence’, The Sculpture Journal, 22. 2, 2013 (2014), pp. 141–142.
‘An anthology of absences’ [T. Nicols: ‘Titian and the End of the Venetian Renaissance], The Art Newspaper, no. 259, July–August 2014, p. 48.
D. Cauzzi and C. Seccaroni (eds): ‘La Santa Cecilia di Raffaello: studi e indagini’, Bolletino d’Arte, XCIX, Serie VII, 24, October–December 2014 (published in January 2016), pp. 151–152.
‘Titian’s secret revealed’, J. Dunkerton et al.: ‘Titian’s Painting Technique before 1540’ and Titian’s Painting Technique from 1540’, The Art Newspaper, no. 282, September 2016, p. 63.
Film: reviews and editorial work
Editor, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967.
Review of Akira Kurosawa’s ‘Rashomon’, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, p. 3.
Review of Laslo Benedek’s ‘The Wild One’, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, p. 12.
Review of Jonas and Adolfas Mekas’s ‘The Brig’, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, p. 17.
Review of Kon Ichikawa’s ‘Fires on the Plain’, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, p. 19.
‘The Cinema of Luis Bunuel’ (with N. Pilkington), Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, pp. 20–22.
Review of Mauritz Stiller’s ‘Gösta Berling’s Saga’, Cambridge Film Society Programme, 1966–1967, pp. 23–24.
‘Aspects of Fritz Lang’, Cinema, 6/7, August 1970, pp. 5–10.
‘The Aesthetics of the Zoom Lens’, Sight and Sound, vol. 40, no. 1, Winter 1970–1971, pp. 40–42.
‘Luminous/Numinous’, review of Steven Spielberg’s ‘E.T.’, London Review of Books, vol. 5, no. 1, 20 January 1983, p. 16.
‘Copping out with Coppola’ (with P. Chabal), review of Francis Ford Coppola’s films, Cambridge Quarterly, XIII, no. 3, 1984, pp. 187–203.