Artibus et Historiae no. 78 (XXXIX), 2018
232 x 252 mm
ISSN 0391-9064

Art and Culture North and South of the Alps from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Essays in Honour of Bernard Aikema -
Guest editors: Carlo Corsato and Juliette Ferdinand
An Opening Remark (Dulcia Meijers) (pp. 9–10)

An Opening Remark

Festschrifts form a longstanding academic tradition to bid farewell to a colleague or professor who has made a significant contribution to his or her field of study. Keeping it secret as long as possible for the one who is being celebrated is part of that tradition. I am convinced that this ‘conspiracy’ will come as a big surprise to Bernard Aikema. Firstly, because this issue of A&H consists of articles and essays written by either budding or already well-established scholars who were all or still are students of his. Secondly, although he will feel deeply honored and touched, it may slightly unsettle him since it anticipates his imminent retirement in approximately a year: A moment he is absolutely dreading! One of the additional attractions of his appointment of chiara fama in Italy, at the University of Verona, was the difference in retirement age between the Netherlands and Italy. Initially 72, now 70, these extra years were for him a precious and welcome extension to the Dutch retirement age of 65. This Festschrift pays an eloquent tribute to his lifelong love and passion for teaching, and his dedication to his students.

An initiative like this inevitably misses out on former students who would have loved to contribute, but lacked for one reason or another the time or the opportunity to do so. To trace and track down all the students in the different cities where Bernard taught or is teaching: Nijmegen in the Netherlands, Louvain in Belgium and Verona in Italy, was in and by itself already quite an enterprise. All my praises go to the two editors of this volume, Carlo Corsato and Juliette Ferdinand, who lovingly took it upon them to initiate this enterprise and scout for the students as well as a publisher. The variety and broadness of Bernard’s research that he also brought into the classroom are tellingly echoed in the diversity in topics, scope and approach of the contributions of his students.

When Carlo and Juliette approached me with the request to write an opening remark, I thought: why not? I am after all his very first student, attending a seminar of his in 1975 –Bernard Aikema being a very young professor in his first year at Nijmegen University – on the Venetian Renaissance. And, as a student majoring in art history I was required to participate in a three-week excursion to Florence: I instantly fell in love with Italy. Little did I know then, that I would spend my life sharing this love and passion for Italy and Italian art with that young professor of Venetian art who would become my lifelong companion.

Introduction (Carlo Corsato and Juliette Ferdinand) (pp. 11–13)

The first idea for this volume came up in 2016. Bernard was away on one of his research trips – not for nothing is he nicknamed ‘the flying Dutchman’ – when a few of his former PhD students assembled in his office at the University of Verona. What started as a simple chat and a cosy get-together reminiscing about all those years of research under Bernard’s supervision developed into a kind of premature nostalgia, as though his imminent retirement had already removed not only his name from the office door, but also his legacy. To all of us who felt privileged to have been given the opportunity to study and work with him, came the spontaneous idea to continue his legacy by paying tribute to the man and the teacher in the best possible way: by writing about art in his honour.

This harking back with fondness to the many years we spent with Bernard quickly prompted us to transform our enthusiasm into a serious commitment and a concrete plan of action. We happily took the lead, and, as Prof. Józef Grabski generously supported the project from the beginning, we could start involving our colleagues and friends in the enterprise. All Bernard’s former and current PhD students were invited to submit a paper to this Festschrift. The response was hugely positive and we are very grateful to everyone for the enthusiasm and encouragement that they brought to the project. We are sorry that some have not been able to contribute for one reason or another. To those who were able to respond positively to our invitation goes our gratitude: the high quality of scholarship of the papers speaks for itself, and should make Bernard proud in the knowledge that all the contributors were students of his, either in the Netherlands, Belgium, or Italy.

To everybody who knows Bernard well, and his passion for art history, it will not come as a big surprise to notice the breadth of the topics, artists, periods, and methods discussed in this volume. His expertise ranges from Italian, especially Venetian art, to Flemish and German painting, and his field of interests includes, among many others, iconography, art collecting, cultural studies, and the geography of art. All these aspects are fully investigated in this volume, and they made our editorial work as interesting as it was challenging. In fact, having assembled our crew, we now needed a map for what promised to be a sort of pictorial navigation – to cite the title of Marco Boschini’s Carta del navegar pittoresco. Our two-year-long ‘navigation’ was not at all easy, as it forced us into a mental journey across the Alps, from Flanders to Italy and back, as well as travel through time, from the fourteenth to the end of the eighteenth century. The structure we eventually chose should be used in a flexible way: sections, in fact, are not meant to represent disciplinary barriers – something we and Bernard never believed in – but should rather aid in grouping the contributions around themes and works of art so as to promote multi- and cross-disciplinary research.

In the first section, ‘Image and Meaning’, Denise Zaru analyses how mnemotechnical practices, described in fifteenth-century sources, may help understand the representation of architecture in Venetian altarpieces of the period. Arvi Wattel provides a political interpretation of the ceiling painted by Garofalo in the palace of Antonio Costabili, one of the most prominent citizens of Renaissance Ferrara. Bram de Klerck investigates Fra Bartolommeo’s landscapes and reveals, behind the depiction of natural details, hidden symbolism rooted in theology and devotion. Erlend De Groot proves that, despite their mediocre artistic qualities and lack of any traces of beauty, the Giant Radish and the Still Life with Pig’s Head in the Rijksmuseum can be fully appreciated as visual historical documents.

In the second section, ‘North and South’, Isabella di Lenardo describes the connection between the Flemish mercantile community in late Renaissance Venice and the shaping of new pictorial genres. Andrea Leonardi explores the North-South relationship within the Italian peninsula and documents the interest in collecting Venetian art in Apulia and the Genoese Republic. Maria Forcellino describes Johan Meerman’s Grand Tour to Venice and presents a few excerpts of his fascinating and unpublished travel journal.

In the third section ‘Image and Artistic Creativity’, Carlo Corsato offers a detailed study of the Louvre Crucifixion by Paolo Veronese and provides a new visual reconstruction of this peculiar composition. Thomas Dalla Costa compares drawings by Jacopo Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, and explains their respective techniques and workshop practices. Francesca Cocchiara sheds new light on the activity of Giulio Carpioni and Francesco Ruschi, two often neglected, yet fascinating seventeenth-century peintres-graveurs.

In the fourth section, Word and Image’, Juliette Ferdinand tackles the debate around the legitimacy of art during the Wars of Religion through a thorough analysis of the introduction to the French translation of Albrecht Dürer’s Four Books on Human Proportion by Louis Meigret. Andrea Polati studies the (lost?) Allegory of Human Life, attributed to Giorgione by Carlo Ridolfi, as well as the Cassinelli collection through the accurate analysis of archival documentation and primary sources. Last but not least, Adriano Aymonino fully reconstructs the critical reception of Lodovico Dolce’s Dialogo della pittura, intitolato l’Aretino and its crucial role in the theoretical foundation of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century classicism.

A quick look at Bernard’s list of publications, included at the end of this volume, will suffice to appreciate how all these papers are intimately linked to his very own research activity. In a certain sense, we may say that these contributions and their authors are like his children and, as every good father does, he should be proud and pleased to see how they have become adult and independent.

There are scholars that do not enjoy receiving Festschrifts, as these may be received as morbid anticipations of future obituaries. We, however, are pretty much convinced that Bernard will treasure this volume as much as we will never forget what we have learnt from him.

List of Bernard Aikema’s Publications (compiled by Giulia Forti) (pp. 15–20)

Single-authored books

De schilder Pietro della Vecchia en de erfenis van de Renaissance in Venetie, PhD dissertation, Amsterdam Universität, Amsterdam, 1986

Pietro della Vecchia and the Heritage of the Renaissance in Venice, Florence, 1990

Jacopo Bassano and His Public. Moralizing Pictures in an Age of Reform, ca. 1535–1600, Princeton, 1996

De Heilige Hiëronymus in het Studeervertrek, of: Hoe Vlaams is Antonello da Messina?, inaugural lecture, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, 10 October 2000 [Nijmeegse kunsthistorische cahiers, vol. IV], Nijmegen, 2000

Giorgione. La Tempesta, Cinisello Balsamo (MI), 2003

Art donations. Selected works donated by members of the World Federation of Friends of Museums, Cernusco sul Naviglio (MI), 2005

Cranach [Art e dossier, n. 271], Florence, 2010


Co-authored books

Nel regno dei poveri. Arte e storia dei grandi ospedali veneziani in età moderna, 1474–1797, co-authored with D. Meijers, Venice, 1989

Le botteghe di Tiziano, co-authored with G. Tagliaferro, in collaboration with A. Mancini and A. J. Martin, Florence, 2009


Co-edited books

W. Schellinks fecit. Viaggio al Sud, 1664–1665, co-edited with H. Brand, Rome, 1983

Italian Paintings from the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in Dutch Public Collections, co-edited with E. Mijnlieff and B. Treffers, in collaboration with G. J. van der Sman, Florence, 1997

Il collezionismo a Venezia e nel Veneto ai tempi della SerenissimaAtti del convegno del Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut, Venezia21–25 settembre 2003, co-edited with R. Lauber and M. Seidel, Venice, 2005

La facciata della chiesa di San Zaccaria a Venezia. Percorsi di storia e conservazione, co-edited with E. Zucchetta, Saonara (PD), 2010

Alle origini dei generi pittorici fra l’Italia e l’Europa, 1600 ca. Atti della giornata di studio internazionale, Ferrara, Fondazione Ermitage Italia, 12 settembre 2011, co-edited with C. Corsato, Treviso, 2013

Paolo Veronese, itinerari nel Veneto, co-edited with P. Marini, in collaboration with C. Corsato, Venice, 2014

In centro et oculis urbis nostre. La chiesa e il monastero di San Zaccaria, co-edited with M. Mancini and P. Modesti, Venice, 2016

Paolo Veronese. Giornate di studioAtti delle Giornate di studio su Paolo Veronese, Verona, 26–28 settembre 2014, co-edited with T. Dalla Costa and P. Marini, Venice, 2016


Essays in edited volumes

‘La pala di Cingoli’, in Lorenzo Lotto. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi per il V centenario della nascita, Asolo, 18–21 settembre 1980, ed. by P. Zampetti and V. Sgarbi, Treviso, 1981, pp. 443–456

‘Pietro Vecchia e i Gesuati’, in ‘Le ricche minere della pittura veneziana. Studi sulla pittura veneta del Seicento, ed. by V. Sgarbi, Rome, 1982, pp. 119–136

‘Lorenzo Lotto and the “Ospitale de San Zuane Polo”’, in Interpretazioni venezianeStudi di storia dell’arte in onore di Michelangelo Muraro, ed. by D. Rosand, Venice, 1984, pp. 343–350

‘Proposte per Sebastiano Ricci e per Nicola Grassi’, in Nicola Grassi e il Rococò europeo. Dagli atti del Congresso internazionale di studi, Udine, Civici Musei e Gallerie di Storia e Arte, 20–22 maggio 1982, ed. by C. Russo, Udine, 1984, pp. 89–97

‘Het hospitaal voor syfilislijders en de katholieke Her vormingsbeweging in Renaissance Venetie’, co-authored with D. Meijers, in Nader beschouwd. Een serie kunsthistorische opstellen aangeboden aan Pieter Singelenberg, ed. by F. Kuyvenhovenand B. Treffers, Nijmegen, 1986, pp. 35–48

‘Della Vecchia, Pietro’, in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, vol. XXXVII, Rome, 1989, ad vocem

‘L’immagine devozionale nell’opera di Paolo Veronese’, in Nuovi studi su Paolo VeroneseAtti del Convegno internazionale di studi su Paolo Veronese, Venezia, Università Ca’ Foscari, 1–4 giugno 1988, ed. by M. Gemin, Venice, 1990, pp. 191–203

‘La pittura del Settecento a Venezia’, in La pittura in Italia. Il Settecento, ed. by G. Briganti, 2 vols, Milan, 1990, vol. I, pp. 169–209

‘De terugkeer van de jezuïten in Venetië. Architectuur en beeldpropaganda’, co-authored with D. Meijers, in Bouwkunst. Studies in vriendschap voor Kees Peeters, ed. by W. Denslagen, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 355–365

‘Carracci “redivivus”. Sull’importanza dell’arte bolognese-romana per gli inizi di Giambattista Tiepolo’, in Terzo incontro in ricordo di Michelangelo Muraro, Sossano, 15 aprile 1994, ed. by G. Menin Muraro and D. Puppulin, Sossano (Vicenza), 1995, pp. 41–52

‘”Santa povertà” e “pietas venetiana”. Osservazioni sul significato della decorazione della sala terrena della Scuola di San Rocco’, in Jacopo Tintoretto nel quarto centenario della morteAtti del convegno internazionale di studi, Venezia, Università Ca’ Foscari, Dipartimento di Storia e Critica delle Arti Giuseppe Mazzariol, 24–26 novembre 1994, ed. by P. Rossi and L. Puppi, Padua, 1996, pp. 185–190

‘La formazione artistica di Giovan Battista Tiepolo: i disegni’, in Giambattista Tiepolo nel terzo centenario della nascitaAtti del convegno internazionale di studi, Venezia – Vicenza – Udine – Parigi, 29 ottobre–4 novembre 1996, ed. by L. Puppi, 2 vols, Padua, 1998, vol. I, pp. 21–25

‘Opere su carta di Nicolò Bambini e di Girolamo Brusaferro’, in Pittura veneziana dal Quattrocento al Settecento. Studi di storia dell’arte in onore di Egidio Martini, ed. by G. M. Pilo, Venice, 1999, pp. 182–186

‘Il “camaleontico” Pietro Vecchia’, in La pinacoteca di Palazzo Thiene. Collezione della Banca Popolare di Vicenza, ed. by F. Rigon, Milan, 2001, pp. 49–54

‘Il secolo dei contrasti: le tenebre’, in La pittura nel Veneto. Il Seicento, ed. by M. Lucco, 2 vols, Milan, 2000–2001, vol. II (2001), pp. 543–572

‘Incroci transalpini. Burgkmair, Lotto, Altdorfer e Giorgione’, in Opere e giorni. Studi su mille anni di arte europea dedicati a Max Seidel, ed. by K. Bergdolt and G. Bonsanti, Venice, 2001, pp. 427–436

‘Nicolò Boldrini naar Titiaan, Karikatuur van de Laokoön, circa 1540–45’, in Uit het Leidse PrentenkabinetOver tekeningen, prenten en foto’s, bij het afscheid van Anton Boschloo, ed. by N. Bartelings, Leiden, 2001, pp. 25–27

‘Un nuovo disegno di Jacopo Bassano’, in Per l’arte da Venezia all’Europa. Studi in onore di Giuseppe Maria Pilo, vol. I: Dall’antichità al Caravaggio, ed. by M. Piantoni and L. De Rossi, Monfalcone, 2001, pp. 219–220

‘Francesco Guardi, il “picturesque” e il mito di Venezia’, in I GuardiVedute, capricci, feste, disegni e quadri turcheschi, ed. by A. Bettagno, Venice, 2002, pp. 17–29

‘Il ritratto di Venezia nel Seicento’, in Aux quatre vents. A festschrift for Bert W. Meijer, ed. by A. W. A. Boschloo, E. Grasman and G. J. van der Sman, Florence, 2002, pp. 305–314

‘Marvellous Imitations and Outrageous Parodies. Pietro della Vecchia revisited’, in Continuity, Innovation, and ConnoisseurshipOld Master Paintings at the Palmer Museum of Art. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the Palmer Museum of Art on March 31 through April 2, 1995, ed. by M. J. Harris, University Park, 2003, pp. 110–133

‘Tesori ponentini per la Serenissima. Il commercio d’arte fiamminga a Venezia e nel Veneto fra Quattro e Cinquecento’, in Tra committenza e collezionismo. Studi sul mercato dell’arte nell’Italia settentrionale durante l’età moderna. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Università degli Studi, Verona, Palazzo Giuliari, 30 novembre – 1 dicembre 2000, ed. by E. M. Dal Pozzolo and L. Tedoldi, Vicenza, 2003, pp. 35–48

‘Met huid en haar geschilderd. Over Titiaan en de kunsthistorische exegese’, in Vlees/Huid/Kleur. De blos, ed. by I. Ketelers and J. Peeters, Sint-Lucas Beeldende Kunst, Ghent, 2003, pp. 155–157

‘La mano di Giorgione? Certezze ed ipotesi riguardanti il disegno di Rotterdam’, in Giorgione a Montagnana. Atti del convegno di studi, ed. by E. M. Dal Pozzolo, Padua, 2004, pp. 39–48

‘Collezionismi a Venezia e nel Veneto: risultati e prospettive di ricerca’, in Il collezionismo a Venezia e nel Veneto ai tempi della SerenissimaAtti del convegno del Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut, Venezia21–25 settembre 2003, co-edited with R. Lauber and M. Seidel, Venice, 2005, pp. 29–42

‘Rubens’s “meraviglia”’, in Munuscula amicorum. Contributions on Rubens and his colleagues in honour of Hans Vlieghe, ed. by. K. van der Stighelen, 2 vols, Turnhout, 2006, vol. I, pp. 213–232

‘L’immagine della Riforma, la riforma dell’immagine. Problemi di pittura religiosa nel Cinquecento fra l’Italia, la Francia e l’Europa’, in La réforme en France et en ItalieContactes, comparaisons et contrastes. Actes du colloque, Rome, École Française27–29 octobre 2005, ed. by P. Benedict, S. Seidel Menchi and A. Tallon, Rome, 2007, pp. 223–241

‘Netherlandish painting and early Renaissance Italy. Artistic rapports in a historiographical perspective’, in Cultural exchange in early modern Europe, vol. IV:Forging European identities, 1400–1700, ed. by H. Roodenburg, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 100–137

‘(Ri)considerazioni sugli esordi di Giovan Battista Tiepolo’, in Un’identità. Custodi dell’arte e della memoria. Studi, interpretazioni, testimonianze in ricordo di Aldo Rizzi, ed. by G. M. Pilo, L. De Rossi and I. Reale, Mariano del Friuli (GO), 2007, pp. 335–337

‘Giorgione and the Seicento or how a star was born’, in Giorgione entmythisiert. Beiträge einer Tagung Giorgione Colloquium in Zusammenhang mit der Ausstellung ‘Giorgione – Mythos und Enigma’ vom 23. März bis 11. Juli 2004, die in Wien am 11. Juli 2004 stattfand, ed. by S. Ferino-Pagden, Turnhout, 2008, pp. 175–189

‘Jacopo Bassano: Ways of Seeing’, in Officine del nuovo. Sodalizi fra letterati, artisti ed editori nella cultura italiana fra Riforma e Controriforma. Atti del simposio internazionale, Utrecht, 8–10 novembre 2007, ed. by H. Hendrix and P. Procaccioli, Manziana (Rome), 2008, pp. 31–39

‘Introduzione: arte periferica, arte della periferia. Architettura, scultura e pittura’, in A. Cusinato, L’arte in Cadore al tempo di Tiziano, Florence, 2008, pp. 37–41

‘La casta Susanna’, in Jacopo Tintoretto. Actas del congreso internacional Jacopo Tintoretto, Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, 26 y 27 de febrero de 2007, ed. by M. Falomir, Madrid, 2009, pp. 45–49

‘Antonello de Messine en détail’, in Daniel Arasse, historien de l’art, ed. by F. Cousinié, Paris, 2010, pp. 165–178

‘The Formative Years in Italy – Stylistics and Social Networks’, co-authored with I. di Lenardo, in Hans von Aachen, ed. by T. Fusenig, in collaboration with A. Taatgen and H. Becker, Munich, 2010, pp. 85–93

‘Bassano, i fiamminghi e l’Europa’, in Venise & Paris, 1500–1700. La peinture vénitienne de la Renaissance et sa réception en France. Actes des colloques de Bordeaux et de Caen, 24–25 février, 6 mai 2006, ed. by M. Hochmann, Geneva, 2011, pp. 101–138

‘Giovanni Segala, la committenza dei Widmann e il rinnovamento della pittura veneziana ai tempi di Sebastiano Ricci’, in Sebastiano Ricci 1659–1734. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Venezia, Fondazione Giorgio Cini, 14–15 dicembre 2009, ed. by G. Pavanello, Verona, 2012, pp. 395–404

‘Hans von Aachen in Italy. A reappraisal’, in Hans von Aachen in contextProceedings of the international conference, Prague, 22–25 September 2010, ed. by L. Konečný and Š. Vácha, Prague, 2012, pp. 17–27

‘Re-constructing Giorgione’, in Reflections on Renaissance VeniceA Celebration of Patricia Fortini Brown. Selected papers presented at 2 meetings held in Venice, Italy, April 2010, and in Princeton, United States, Dec. 2010, ed. by B. de Maria and M. E. Frank, Milan, 2013, pp. 104–111

‘Alle origini dei generi pittorici – un problema mal definito?’, in Alle origini dei generi pittorici fra l’Italia e l’Europa, 1600 ca. Atti della giornata di studio internazionale, Ferrara, Fondazione Ermitage Italia, 12 settembre 2011, co-edited with C. Corsato, Treviso, 2013, pp. 9–19

‘L’Ecce Homo di Lorenzo Lotto’, in Art in Sixteenth-Century Venice: Context, Practices, Developments. Proceedings of the Conference in Honour of Peter Humfrey, University of St Andrews, 3–6 May 2012, 2 vols, [Artibus et Historiae, 2013, 67–68], vol. II, pp. 29–37

‘The reception of Bosch in Italy: macaronic culture and the taste for the bizarre and fanciful’, in Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public3rd International Jheronimus Bosch Conference, September 16–18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center, ’s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, ed. by J. Timmermans, ’s-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 30–43

‘Valori incerti, saperi precari. Vicende seicentesche fra Marco Boschini, Pietro della Vecchia e il loro entourage’, in Marco Boschini. L’epopea della pittura veneziana nell’Europa baroccaAtti del convegno di studi, Verona, Università degli Studi – Museo di Castelvecchio, 19–20 giugno 2014, ed. by E. M. Dal Pozzolo, in collaboration with P. Bertelli, Treviso, 2014, pp. 164–175

‘Paolo Veronese in prospettiva: a proposito della mostra di Verona’, in Paolo Veronese. Giornate di studioAtti delle Giornate di studio su Paolo Veronese, Verona, 26–28 settembre 2014, co-edited with T. Dalla Costa and P. Marini, Venice, 2016, pp. 205–215

‘Introduzione’, in P. Lüdemann, Tiziano. Le botteghe e la grafica, Florence, 2016, pp. VIII–IX


Exhibitions and their catalogues

Disegni veneti di collezioni olandesi, Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice, 8 September – 3 November 1985, and Nederlands Interuniversitair Kunsthistorisch Instituut, Florence, 9 November – 15 December 1985, co-edited with B. W. Meijer, Vicenza, 1985

Italiaanse tekeningen uit Nederlandse collecties 1570–1800, Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint-Jan’, Nijmegen, 12 March – 10 April 1988, co-edited with R. D. Kollewijn, Nijmegen, 1988

Schilders van Venetië. Oorsprong en bloei van de venetiaanse vedute / Painters of Venice. The Story of the Venetian Veduta’, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 15 December 1990 – 10 March 1991, co-edited with B. Bakker, Amsterdam, 1990

De wereld binnen handbereik. Nederlandse kunst- en rariteitenverzamelingen, 1585–1735, Historisch Museum, Amsterdam, 26 June – 11 October 1992, co-edited with E. Bergvelt and R. Kistenmaker, Amsterdam, 1992

Maestri dell’invenzione. Disegni italiani del Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Nederlands Interuniversitair Kunsthistorisch Instituut, Florence, 21 October – 17 December 1995, and Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 11 May – 4 August 1996, co-edited with B. W. Meijer, Florence, 1995

Maestri dell’Invenzione. Italian Drawings from the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Nederlands Interuniversitair Kunsthistorisch Instituut, Florence, 21 October – 17 December 1995 and Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 11 May – 4 August 1996, co-edited with B. W. Meijer, Amsterdam, 1995

Tiepolo in Holland. Works by Giambattista Tiepolo and his circle in Dutch collections, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 17 August – 20 October 1996, co-edited with M. Tuijn, Ghent, 1996

Tiepolo and his circle. Drawings in American collections, Harvard University Art Museum, Cambridge (Mass.), 12 October – 15 December 1996, and Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, 17 January – 13 April 1997, Cambridge (Mass.), 1996

Tiepolo e la sua cerchia. L’opera grafica. Disegni dalle collezioni americane, Harvard University Art Museum, Cambridge (Mass.), 12 October – 15 December 1996 and Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, 17 January – 13 April 1997, Venice, 1996

Il Rinascimento a Venezia e la pittura del Nord ai tempi di Bellini, Dürer, Tiziano, Palazzo Grassi, Venice, 5 September 1999 – 9 January 2000, co-edited with B. L. Brown, Milan, 1999 (introductory essay: ‘Venezia: crocevia fra Nord e Sud’, co-authored with B. L. Brown, pp. 18–25; essays: ‘Il gusto dei fiamminghi. Opere “ponentine” nelle collezioni veneziane del Rinascimento’, pp. 82–91; ‘Pittura veneziana del XV secolo e ars nova dei Paesi Bassi’, co-authored with B. L. Brown, pp. 176–183; ‘Venezia e la Germania: il primo Cinquecento’, co-authored with A. J. Martin, pp. 332–339)

Meesters op papier. Nederlandse tekeningen uit een particuliere collectie (17de – 19de eeuw), Museum Het Valkhof, Nijmegen, 15 June – 1 September 2002, co-edited with P. van der Coelen and P. Roelofs, Zwolle, 2002

Cranach. L’altro Rinascimento / A different Renaissance, Galleria Borghese, Rome, 15 October 2010 – 13 February 2011, co-edited with A. Coliva, Milan, 2010 (introductory essay: ‘Cranach: l’altro Rinascimento’, pp. 13–33)

Tiziano, Venezia e il papa Borgia, Palazzo COSMO, Pieve di Cadore, 29 June – 6 October 2013, Florence, 2013 (introductory essay: ‘Tiziano, Venezia e il Papa Borgia. Le ragioni e gli esiti di una mostra: dati, proposte e qualche provocazione’, pp. 27–31)

Paolo Veronese – L’illusione della realtà, Palazzo della Gran Guardia, Verona, 5 July – 5 October 2014, co-edited with P. Marini, Milan, 2014 (essays: ‘L’esordio’, pp. 21–36; ‘Pictor religiosus’, pp. 241–254; ‘Una penna particolarmente felice’, co-authored with T. Dalla Costa, pp. 303–313)

Jheronimus Bosch e Venezia, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, 18 February – 4 June 2017, Venice, 2017 (introductory essay: ‘Jheronimus Bosch e Venezia. Tra “sogni” e “meraviglie”’, pp. 15–33)

Albrecht Dürer e il Rinascimento tra Germania e Italia, Palazzo Reale, Milan, 21 February – 24 June 2018, in collaboration with A. J. Martin, Milan, 2018 (introductory essay: ‘Albrecht Dürer e i suoi contemporanei, fra Oberdeutschland e Valpadana’, pp. 19–43; essays: ‘Dürer, l’arte tedesca, Venezia, l’Italia’, co-authored with A. J. Martin, pp. 126–133; ‘Albrecht Dürer incisore: Apocalisse e cicli cristologici’, co-authored with G. M. Fara, pp. 264–267; ‘Il classicismo e le sue alternative’, pp. 284–291)


Contributions to catalogues of exhibitions organised by other scholars (essays)

‘Un giardino francese e la tradizione veneta’, in Ville e tempoLe dimore dei Grimani, dei Corner e degli Astori, a Martellago, Chiesetta della Villa Grimani-Morosini, Martellago, 24 October – 1November 1992, ed. by A. Barbiero and A. Busaio, Martellago (VE), 1992, pp. 15–28

‘Marco Ricci e l’arte olandese del Seicento’, co-authored with B. de Klerck, in Marco Ricci e il paesaggio veneto del Settecento, Palazzo della Crepadona, Belluno, 15 May – 22 August 1993, ed. by D. Succi and A. Delneri, Milan, 1993, pp. 72–80

‘Carlevarijs e l’arte nordica’, in Luca Carlevarijs e la veduta veneziana del Settecento, Palazzo della Ragione, Padua, 25 September – 26 December 1994, ed. by I. Reale, Padua, 1994, pp. 143–157

‘Exemplum virtutis: “The family of Darius before Alexander” in Renaissance and Baroque art’, in Ho Megas Alexandros stēn Eurōpaï kē technē / Alexander the Great in European Art, Tellogleio Hidryma, Thessaloniki, 22 September 1997 – 11 January 1998, ed. by N. Chatzēnikolau, 2 vols, Thessaloniki, 1997, vol. II, pp. 164–170

‘Hieronymus Bosch and Italy?’, in Hieronymus Bosch. New Insights Into His Life and Work, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1 September – 11 November 2001, ed. by J. Koldeweij, B. Vermet and B. van Kooij, Rotterdam, pp. 25–31

‘I gesuiti e le arti visive a Venezia: spiritualità, propaganda religiosa e ragion di stato fra Cinquecento e Settecento’, in Baroque, vision jésuite: du Tintoret à Rubens Barocco nella visione gesuita. Da Tintoretto a Rubens, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen, 12 July – 13 October 2003, ed. by A. Tapié , Paris, 2003, pp. 124–139

‘Giorgione: i rapporti con il Nord e una nuova lettura della “Vecchia” e della “Tempesta”’, in Giorgione. Le Maraviglie dell’Arte’, Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice, 1 November 2003 – 22 February 2004, ed. by G. Nepi Scirè and S. Rossi, Venice, 2003, pp. 72–89

‘I Crocifissi di Giovanni Bellini. Genesi e significato di un tema pittorico nel Quattrocento, fra nord e sud’, in Bellini e Vicenza, Banca Popolare, Pinacoteca, Vicenza, 5 December 2003 – 25 January 2004, and Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice, 1–29 February 2004, ed. by F. Rigon and. E. M. Dal Pozzolo, Cittadella (PD), 2003, pp. 38–59

‘Venetian Painting and Sculpture of the Cinquecento and Classical Culture’, in In the Light of Apollo. Italian Renaissance and Greece, Ethnikē Pinakothēkē kai Museio Alexandru Sutzu, Athens, 22 December 2003 – 31 March 2004, edby M. Gregori, 2 vols, Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2003–2004, vol. I, pp. 507–510

‘Giorgione und seine Verbindung zum Norden: neue Interpretationen zur Vecchia und zur Tempesta’, in Giorgione, Mythos und Enigma; eine Ausstellung des Kunsthistorischen Museums und der Gallerie dell’Accademia Venedig, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 23 March – 11 July 2004, ed. by S. Ferino-Pagden and G. Nepi Scirè, Milan, 2004, pp. 85–103

‘Fleckenmalerei: Tizian zwischen Venedig und Europa’, in Der späte Tizian und die Sinnlichkeit der Malerei, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, 18 October 2007 – 6 January 2008, ed. by S. Ferino-Pagden, Vienna, 2007, pp. 86–97

‘Appunti iconologici’, in Jacopo Bassano. Il Riposo durante la Fuga in Egitto. Ritorno e rinascita. Venezia 1612–2008, Fondazione Querini Stampalia, Venice, 9 May – 13 July 2008, Venice, 2008, pp. 37–41

‘Pittura di macchia: Tiziano e gli altri fra Venezia e l’Europa’, in L’ultimo Tiziano e la sensualità della pittura, Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice, 26 January – 20 April 2008, ed. by S. Ferino-Pagden, Venice, 2008, pp. 89–99

‘Hans Rottenhammer und der venezianische Kanon’, in Hans Rottenhammer: begehrt – vergessen – neu entdeckt, Weserrenaissance-Museum Schloß Brake, Lemgo, 17 August – 16 November 2008 and Národní Galerie, Prague, 11 December 2008 – 22 February 2009, ed. by H. Borggrefe, L. Konečný, V. Lupkes and V. Vlnas, Munich, 2009, pp. 35–43

‘Die Kunst Italiens und die europäische Renaissance’, in Europa in der Renaissance. Metamorphosen 1400–1600, Schweizerisches Nationalmuseum, Zurich, 1st August – 27 November 2016, ed. by B. Roeck and D. Tonella, Ostfildern, 2016, pp. 71–79

‘Tre grandi veneziani. Tiziano, Tintoretto e Veronese. Riflessioni su un’avventura critica e le ragioni di una mostra’, in Venezia Rinascimento: Tiziano, Tintoretto, Veronese. Dipinti dalle collezioni italiane e russe, Pushkin Museum, Moscow, 9 June – 20 August 2017, ed. by V. Markova and T. Dalla Costa, Moscow, 2017, pp. 23–27


Articles in periodicals

‘Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, the early years’, Notizie da Palazzo Albani, 6, 1977, 2, pp. 70–80

‘The fame of Francesco Squarcione’, Ateneo Veneto, 15, 1977, 1/2, pp. 33–37

‘An Adoration of the Magi in Santa Maria del Giglio’, Notizie da Palazzo Albani, 7, 1978, 1, pp. 70–73

‘G. A. Pellegrini in San Martino’, Notizie da Palazzo Albani, 7, 1978, 1, pp. 74–75

‘A set of theatre drawings by Giannantonio Pellegrini’, Apollo, 110, 1979, pp. 438–440

‘Patronage in late Baroque Venice: the Zenobio’, Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome, 41, 1979, pp. 209–218

‘A French garden and the Venetian tradition’, Arte Veneta, 34, 1980, pp. 127–137

‘Per Gaspare Diziani’, Bollettino / Civici Musei Veneziani d’Arte e di Storia, 25, 1980, pp. 7–18

‘Romeinse ruïnes in een schilderij van Paul Bril’, The Rijksmuseum Bulletin, 28, 1980, pp. 10–16

‘San Lazzaro dei Mendicanti. The Venetian beggars’ hospital and its architects’, co-authored with D. Meijers, Bollettino del Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio, 23, 1981, pp. 189–202

‘The 1733 art exhibition at San Rocco in Venice’, Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome, 43, 1981, pp. 143–148

‘Patronage in late Baroque Venice: the Zenobio, a correction’, Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome, 43, 1981, pp. 149–150

‘Early Tiepolo studies: I. the Ospedaletto problem’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 26, 1982, 3, pp. 339–382

‘Un disegno di Giannantonio Guardi’, Arte Veneta, 36, 1982, pp. 237–238

‘Tre oltramontani operanti nel Veneto: De Coster, Dorigny e Vernansal’, Notizie da Palazzo Albani, 12, 1983, 1/2, pp. 251–260

‘Pietro della Vecchia, a profile’, Saggi e Memorie di Storia dell’Arte, 14, 1984, pp. 77–100

‘Diamantini e Molinari in Palazzo Gritti-Badoer a Venezia’, Arte Veneta, 39, 1985, pp. 165–167

‘Nicolò Bambini e Giambattista Tiepolo nel salone di palazzo Sandi a Venezia’, Arte Veneta, 40, 1986, pp. 167–171

‘De inventarisatie van italiaanse schilderkunst in Nederlands openbaar bezit: een presentatie’, Incontri. Rivista europea di studi italiani, 2, 1986/1987, pp. 183–192

‘Le decorazioni di palazzo Barbaro-Curtis a Venezia fino alla metà del Settecento’, Arte Veneta, 41, 1987, pp. 147–153

‘Quattro note su Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Giovane’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 31, 1987, 2/3, pp. 441–454

‘Een tekening van Girolamo Brusaferro in het Rijksprentenkabinet’, The Rijksmuseum Bulletin, 37, 1989, pp. 329–332

‘Een Venetiaans schilderij van Willem Drost’, Oud-Holland. Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse kunstgeschiedenis, 103, 1989, pp. 115–117

‘Lorenzo Lotto: la pala di Sant’Antonino e l’osservanza domenicana a Venezia’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 33, 1989, 1, pp. 127–140

‘In het rijk der armen. Grote hospitalen en armenhuizen uit de Renaissance in Venetie’, co-authored with D. Meijers, IncontriRivista europea di studi italiani, 5, 1990, pp. 119–132

‘Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini 1716–1718. A Venetian painter in the Low Countries’, Nederlands kunsthistorisch jaarboek, 44, 1993, pp. 215–242

‘Savoldo, la città di Dio e il pellegrinaggio della vita’, Venezia Cinquecento, 3, 1993, pp. 99–120

‘A Group of Drawings by Francesco Algarotti’, Apollo, 140, 1994, 391, pp. 58–64

‘Avampiano e sfondo nell’opera di Cima da Conegliano. La pala d’altare e lo spettatore tra la fine del Quattrocento e l’inizio del Cinquecento’, Venezia Cinquecento, 4, 1994, pp. 93–112

‘Titian’s Mary Magdalen in the Palazzo Pitti. An ambiguous painting and its critics’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 57, 1994, pp. 48–59

‘Tiziano, la maniera e il pubblico’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 39, 1995, 1, pp. 167–184

‘A new drawing by Louis Dorigny’, Master Drawings, 35, 1997, 1, pp. 63–66

‘Francesco Rosa a Venezia’, Paragone. Arte, 48, 1997, 12, pp. 42–55

‘”Il famoso Abondio”: Abbondio Stazio e la decorazione a stucco nei palazzi veneziani, circa 1685–1750’, Saggi e Memorie di Storia dell’Arte, 21, 1997, pp. 85–122

‘Paul Troger: A Transalpine Journey’, On Paper, 2, 1997/1998, 3, pp. 12–19

‘Italian Drawings in Vaduz and Bremen’, Master Drawings, 36, 1998, 2, pp. 211–213

‘Early Drawings for Prints by Giambattista Tiepolo’, Master Drawings, 36, 1998, 3, pp. 251–274

‘Antwoord aan Jan de Jong’, Incontri. Rivista di studi italo-nederlandesi, 14, 1999, pp. 133–135

‘La Cappella d’oro di San Zaccaria. Arte, religione e politica nella Venezia del doge Foscari’, Arte Veneta, 57, 2000, pp. 22–41

‘Lorenzo Lotto: viaggi, committenze e vicende domenicane’, Venezia Cinquecento, 10, 2000, 19, pp. 133–151

‘”Stravaganze e bizarie de chimere, de mostri, e d’animali”. Hieronymus Bosch nella cultura italiana del Rinascimento’, Venezia Cinquecento, 11, 2001, 22, pp. 111–135

‘Antonello da Messina door de eeuwen’, Desipientia, 9, 2002, pp. 24–29

‘Il gusto del paradiso e la persona del pittore. Frutti, firme e altri particolari di Carlo Crivelli’, Arte Documento, 17/19, 2003, pp. 194–199

 ‘Il secolo di Tiziano. Stampe veneziane del Rinascimento’, Studi Tizianeschi, 1, 2003, p. 33

‘Giustino Menescardi disegnatore. A proposito di un disegno del Museo Civico di Bassano’, Bollettino del Museo Civico di Bassano, 25, 2004, pp. 203–210

‘Some early drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo’, Master Drawings, 42, 2004, 4, pp. 361–369

‘Venere svelata: la ‘Venere di Urbino’ di Tiziano’, Studi Tizianeschi, 2, 2004, pp. 74–75

‘Restoration. Titian, “Jacopo Pesaro presented by Pope Alexander VI to Saint Peter”’, Studi Tizianeschi, 2, 2004, p. 76

‘Carlo Crivelli: il gusto del paradiso’, FMR. Rivista bimestrale d’arte e cultura visiva, 7, 2005, pp. 23–48

‘Molinari & co.: riflessioni sul momento internazionale della pittura veneziana fra Sei e Settecento’, Arte Veneta, 63, 2006, pp. 203–208

‘Tiziano: genio in bottega’, Studi tizianeschi, 4, 2006, pp. 11–15

‘Giambattista Tiepolo in viaggio per la Spagna: un nuovo documento’, Arte Veneta, 65, 2008, pp. 222–224

‘Kunst voor het volk – in de Renaissance. Enkele gedachten over een paradox’, Desipientia, 18, 2011, 2, pp. 4–5

‘”Di qualunque cosa, volendo significar, che ella sia bella, si dice, lei haver disegno”. Tracce per una storiografia del disegno veneto’, Ateneo Veneto [Proceedings of the Conference La storia dell’arte a Venezia ieri e oggi: duecento anni di studi, Venice, 5 – 6 November 2013], 12, 2013, 1, pp. 293–304

‘Un foglio di Domenico Tiepolo e la questione dei disegni tiepoleschi a gessetto all’epoca di Würzburg’, Bollettino dei Musei Civici Veneziani, 9/10, 2014/2015, pp. 150–153

DENISE ZARU - Creating a Devotional Space. Architectural Metaphors in Venetian Renaissance Altarpieces (pp. 21–37)
Creating a Devotional Space. Architectural Metaphors in Venetian Renaissance Altarpieces

This essay investigates the representation of architecture in Venetian painting, focusing on the use of fictive buildings in altarpieces around 1500. The analysis of paintings of Giovanni Bellini, Cima da Conegliano and Marco Basaiti demonstrates their crucial role in the creation of an ambiguous pictorial space. It shows how the use of a metonymic architectural vocabulary participates to the creation and the meaning of the so-called typology of the Sacra conversazione. In these altarpieces, the architecture is represented as an architectural frame imitating a real chapel and blurring the distinction between the pictorial and real space. The fictive buildings are rhetorical topoi that transform the pictorial space into a mental and devotional space, operating as metaphors of meditative activity; they are also the privileged support to convey a metaphorical discourse about the Virgin.

The essay proposes to identify the roots of the metaphorical use of architecture in Italian devotional painting in mnemotechnical practices described in treatises on memory, which were widely disseminated at the end of the fifteenth century, and their applications to meditative practices promoted by Mendicant Orders. It also sheds light on the role in their dissemination played by the Observance movement of Mendicant Orders and by the architectural metaphors used in their devotional treatises.

ARVI WATTEL - Good Vibrations. Mutual Love in Garofalo’s Frescoes for Antonio Costabili (pp. 39–58)
Good Vibrations. Mutual Love in Garofalo’s Frescoes for Antonio Costabili

In the first decade of the sixteenth century, Garofalo painted the ceiling of a small room in a palace that belonged to one of Renaissance Ferrara’s most prominent citizens, its chief magistrate Antonio Costabili. Despite being one of the most widely studied works in Garofalo’s œuvre, the so-called Sala del Tesoro remains not very well understood. This article argues that the grisailles in the lunettes – depicting the story of Eros and his brother Anteros, the god of mutual love – are key to reading the animated balcony scene on the ceiling as a world ruled by Anteros, where (unlikely) opposites are harmoniously united. Garofalo’s decorations cast Antonio Costabili as a second Anteros and underscore the essential role of Costabili in the successful governing of Ferrara.
BRAM DE KLERCK - Fra Bartolommeo: the Depiction of Landscape and the Use of Devotional Images (pp. 59–73)
Fra Bartolommeo: the Depiction of Landscape and the Use of Devotional Images

In a discussion of Fra Bartolommeo’s God the Father altarpiece in Museo Villa Guinigi, Lucca, Madonna and Child with Saints in Besançon Cathedral, and Salvator Mundiin Galleria Palatina, Florence, it is argued that the depictions of small landscapes in the backgrounds of these paintings confront the devout beholder with the notions of the sinful world, the innocence of pagan peoples not yet converted, and the promise of religious salvation, respectively. A fourth case, the Annunciation in Volterra Cathedral, is characterised by an ingenious inversion of the painted realm as opposed to the real world. Observation of the background landscape forces the viewer to imagine himself to occupy a privileged position inside of the Virgin Mary’s dwellings.
ERLEND DE GROOT - Unappealing Paintings, Great Stories: Two Still Lifes from the Kitchen of the Muiderslot (pp. 75–82)
Unappealing Paintings, Great Stories: Two Still Lifes from the Kitchen of the Muiderslot

This article offers interpretations of two seventeenth-century food still lifes kept at Muiden castle. Neither painting is really about food. In one case its meaning is related to ambitious building plans and hopes of a bright future by a community of exiles from the Netherlands in Germany. In the other case its meaning is related to forgotten proverbs and sayings. Both cases make clear that even the most insignificant works of art can have great stories to tell.
ISABELLA DI LENARDO - «Een Italische Keucken van Dirick de Vriese». Commercializzare l’identità artistica tra Venezia e il ‘Nord’ (pp. 83–93)
«Een Italische Keucken van Dirick de Vriese». The Commercialisation of the Artistic Identity between Venice and the ‘North’

In the second half of the sixteenth century the artistic exchanges between Venice and the Low Countries intensified. Although no Venetian painters settled in Antwerp or in the cities of the Low Countries, several painters of Flemish origin, in particular Dirck de Vries and Ludovico Pozzoserrato, moved to Venice. These two personalities fostered the circulation in Venice of paintings produced in Flanders and, in the meantime, produced paintings featuring some subjects characterized by a marked Venetian identity. The essay examines in particular the subjects of Kitchens, domestic interiors with various characterizations, and the Carnival, another subject matter peculiar of the lagoon, which was exported and spread rapidly to the North. The presence in the collections of wealthy Antwerp merchants of these subjects, codified as ‘Venetian’, even though produced by artists of Flemish origin, is an important element defining the perception of this production identified as a ‘Venetianity’ and carefully managed by foreign artists.
ANDREA LEONARDI - Nobili genovesi nel Regno di Napoli. Michele IV Imperiale (1719–1782), principe di Francavilla tra gusto per l’antico e cultura figurativa veneta (pp. 95–110)
Genoese Noblemen in the Kingdom of Naples: Michele IV Imperiale (1719–1782), Prince of Francavilla, between the Taste for Antique and Venetian Art

The Orazione di rendimento di grazie al re, written by Bernardo della Torre (1779) on the occassion of the foundation of the Reale Accademia delle Scienze e delle Belle Lettere in Naples, during the reign of Ferdinando di Borbone, is dedicated to Michele IV Imperiale (1719–1782), prince of Francavilla. It opens the present paper on the artistic relations between the region of Apulia and the Genoese Republic, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, through the Neapolitan hub and with a constant interest for patronage and collecting. Michele Imperiale, a Genoese settled in Naples, but honoured by Apulian aristocracy with a noble title (prince of Francavilla), rented the Cellamare palace which housed a version of the Supper in the House of Simon Pharisee by Veronese, derived from the painting executed for the Santi Nazario e Celso monastery in Verona (1556), later documented in the Balbi-Durazzo palace in Genoa (1737). Imperiale’s strategies were similar to those of other Genoese noblemen (Giustiniani, Doria, De Mari) active in the Kingdom of Naples.

MARIA FORCELLINO - A Dutchman in Venice: Johan Meerman and his Grand Tour of Italy (pp. 111–123)
A Dutchman in Venice: Johan Meerman and his Grand Tour of Italy

In 1775 Johan Meerman (1753–1815) undertook a Grand Tour of Italy. On the way back to Holland, he set out from Naples, then considered by Grand Tourists as the southernmost stop on their journey, and travelled north through Florence, Bologna and Ferrara. In the spring of 1776 Meerman concluded his itinerary in Venice, by exploring the city and all its famous buildings, churches and art collections. Moreover he witnessed the feast of the Ascension (or Sensa), one of the most famous celebrations in the city, eagerly anticipated by citizens and travellers alike.

The paper investigates Meerman’s visit to Venice and puts it in a wider cultural and art-historical context, examining in particular his Journaal van een reis van Johan Meerman door Engeland, Frankrijk, Zwitserland, Italië, Oostenrijk en Zuid-Duitschland, an unpublished manuscript travel journal, whose edition is currently under preparation.

CARLO CORSATO - Colour of Devotion: Veronese’s Crucifixion in the Musée du Louvre (pp. 125–140)
Colour of Devotion: Veronese’s Crucifixion in the Musée du Louvre

The essay analyses the Louvre Crucifixion by Paolo Veronese (c. 1575–1580) and aims to clarify the presence and significance of the woman cloaked in yellow in the middle of the composition. Alternatively identified with the personification of the Synagogue, Mary Magdalen, or one of the three Marys, the veiled figure recurred frequently in representations of different moments of the Passion of Christ from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, including a number of works by Veronese himself. A study of this visual tradition explains how Veronese arranged the Louvre composition to be observed from a specific viewing angle. When contemplated from the right-hand side, the image reveals how the woman robed in yellow, none other than one of the Marys, has the function of guiding viewers through a spiritual journey from the suffering of the Virgin to the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross.

THOMAS DALLA COSTA - Drawings and Draughtsmanship in Sixteenth-Century Venice: Tintoretto and Veronese in Comparison (pp. 141–154)
Drawings and Draughtsmanship in Sixteenth-Century Venice: Tintoretto and Veronese in Comparison

Jacopo Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese were two of the most prolific draughtsmen of Renaissance Venice, as testified by the relevant number of surviving drawings attributed to them. The black chalk, occasionally heightened with white, had been Tintoretto’s preferred medium, whereas Veronese always preferred pen and ink. Moreover, drawings of the latter belonged to different categories (sketches, studies of figures, chiaroscuro drawings), while Tintoretto drew chiefly single figure studies. The reason behind these differences should be sought in the use these artists made of drawings: Tintoretto used it exclusively as a vehicle in his progress towards the finished painting and not as an intellectual tool, as Veronese did. It is well known that Tintoretto and Veronese had reciprocally studied themselves, but their approach to drawing has never been compared before. Highlighting the differences of their corpus graphicum, this article aims to compare the drawing practice inside Tintoretto and Veronese’s workshops and their working methods.
FRANCESCA COCCHIARA - Intrecci vicentini per Giulio Carpioni e Francesco Ruschi attraverso le incisioni di Giovanni Georgi e Giacomo Ruffoni (pp. 155–169)
Giulio Carpioni and Francesco Ruschi’s Links with Vicenza through the Engravings by Giovanni Georgi and Giacomo Ruffoni

The present paper sheds new light on the activity of the peintre-graveurs Giulio Carpioni and Francesco Ruschi, overlooked in recent scholarly literature. From 1630 Carpioni worked as book illustrator in collaboration with publishers (e.g. Giacomo Amadio), cartographers (e.g. Pietro Michieli) and engravers, particularly Giovanni Georgi. To Georgi was also connected Ruschi on at least one occasion, but the painter collaborated more extensively with the pupil of Georgi, Giacomo Ruffoni, originally from Trento and active as both illustrator and engraver. In 1653 Ruffoni, for example, made a print after Ruschi’s Saint John the Evangelist, formerly in the church of the Reformed Franciscans in Vicenza and now lost. The connection between the two illustrators and their links with the cultural and publishing network, with particular emphasis on the involvement of Carpioni and Ruschi, offer a new insight and understanding of the artistic and cultural context of seventeenth-century Vicenza.
JULIETTE FERDINAND - The French Translation of Albrecht Dürer’s Four Books on Human Proportion: a ‘crime de lèse majesté divine’? (pp. 171–184)
The French Translation of Albrecht Dürer’s Four Books on Human Proportion: a ‘crime de lèse majesté divine’?

In 1557 Louis Meigret (c. 1500 – c. 1558), a humanist and grammarian from Lyon, published a French translation of Albrecht Dürer’s treatise Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion (Nuremberg, 1528) as Les quatre livres d’Albert Durer, peinctre & geometrien tres excellent, de la proportion des parties & pourtraicts des corps humains (Paris: chez Charles Périer). In the preface to the reader, Meigret brings up the polemic launched by the Reformed theologians regarding the function of art and the representation of divinity. These two pages attest to the liveliness of the debate on the legitimacy of representing not only religious scenes, but also the human body, a few years before the outbreak of the first of the Wars of Religion in France. The present contribution sets out to analyse the text to gain a better understanding of what is at stake in the light of the religious context, especially in Meigret’s circle, thanks to a comparison with the positions adopted by the two most influential theologians of the time, Martin Luther (1483–1546) and Jean Calvin (1509–1564).
ANDREA POLATI - Un Giorgione impossibile: l’Allegoria della vita umana e la collezione Cassinelli di Genova (pp. 185–199)
An Impossible Giorgione: The Allegory of Human Life and the Cassinelli Collection in Genoa

The present essay deals with the Allegory of Human Life (‘Simbolo dell’humana vita’), attributed to Giorgione in Carlo Ridolfi’s Le maraviglie dell’arte (1648). Particular attention has been paid to both literary and visual sources of this iconography, widely diffused in seventeenth-century Venice by Pietro della Vecchia. According to Ridolfi, this painting, allegedly by Giorgione, was owned by the hitherto unknown ‘Signori Cassinelli’ in Genoa. Unpublished documents have helped to determine the identity of Bartolomeo Cassinelli, a Genoese merchant who worked as agent for the Widmann company in Venice from 1633 to 1644. Among these documents there emerges an interesting inventory of Cassinelli’s collection which included a ‘quadro con la contemplatione della vita humana’: the same allegory attributed to Giorgione. Carlo Ridolfi’s detailed description offers also the opportunity to identify a painting by Vecchia that has recently appeared on the art market. Is it a copy after the lost original by Giorgione or a fake? These new findings shed new light on the invention of the Giorgione myth and the reception of his works in Seicento Venice, especially in the milieu of Ridolfi.
ADRIANO AYMONINO - Ludovico Dolce’s Aretino: Its Foundational Role in the Theory of Classicism and its Eighteenth-Century Revival (pp. 201–218)
Ludovico Dolce’s Aretino: Its Foundational Role in the Theory of Classicism and its Eighteenth-Century Revival

In its criticism of Michelangelo’s late production and reverence for Raphael and the Antique, Ludovico Dolce’s Aretino (1557) provided a few founding principles that would be fully developed by the classicist theory of art in the following centuries. Frequently discussed in academic circles during the seventeenth century, Dolce’s polemical dialogue was eventually reprinted in French and Italian in 1735 with a preface by Nicolas Vleughels, director of the French Academy in Rome, who drastically reformed the institution, laying the ground for the spread of the neo-classical aesthetic in the second half of the century. This essay will discuss the seminal role of Dolce’s Aretino in the formulation of a classicist theory of art and its impact on eighteenth-century art theory and academic practices.
LUBOMÍR KONEČNÝ - Leonardo da Vinci’s Battle of Anghiari Revisited (pp. 219–233)
Leonardo da Vinci’s Battle of Anghiari Revisited

The text providing the basis of this article has so far never been connected with Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari. It shows how a Florentine humanist scholar, Piero Vettori, understood this masterpiece in the middle of the sixteenth century, and from it threads develop leading to a better understanding of both its grandiose composition, and eventually, its inglorious end. It is suggested that Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari was conceived of and intended to be executed as a ‘Greek’ painting in Florence, ‘the new Athens’, and precisely for this very reason deteriorated so quickly.
BARNABY NYGREN - Savoldo’s Saint Matthew and the Angel: Problems of Iconography and Interpretation (pp. 235–253)
Savoldo’s Saint Matthew and the Angel: Problems of Iconography and Interpretation

The two background scenes in Giovanni Girolamo Savoldo’s Saint Matthew and the Angel, currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, have been the subject of scholarly debate. This paper presents a new identification for one of the scenes, linking it to an incident in the apocryphal Acts and Martyrdom of Saint Matthew, and further suggests that the other background scene contains either a direct or indirect reference to a passage in Matthew’s account of the Olivet discourse. Furthermore, the composition of the painting has been examined to argue that the painting presents, albeit obliquely, Matthew’s transition from the world of sin and business to that of faith and redemption. The traditional connection of the work to Milanese economic reform and the activities of the Milanese mint, in which the work was originally found, has been challenged, and a new interpretation has been presented that foregrounds issues of charity both in the painting and in Milan at the time the work was made.
A. VICTOR COONIN - Beyond the Binary: Michelangelo, Tommaso de’ Cavalieri and a Drawing at Windsor Castle (pp. 255–266)
Beyond the Binary: Michelangelo, Tommaso de’ Cavalieri and a Drawing at Windsor Castle

Michelangelo created some of the most beautiful drawings of the Italian Renaissance for Tommaso de’ Cavalieri, a young Roman nobleman whom he met in 1532. Many of these drawings are well identified, but scholars have long debated which, if any, extant examples might be those mentioned by Vasari as idealized heads Michelangelo presented to Tommaso intended, at least in part, to help the young man learn to draw. Present attributions elicit considerable interpretive and stylistic challenges, especially in determining what Michelangelo might have meant to express with these images. This study takes a fresh look at one of the most controversial of these proposed attributions, the recto and verso of a sheet from the Royal Collection in Windsor Castle (RL 12764). Notable scholarly ambivalence concerns whether the so-called recto is male or female. We argue that the drawing is better understood by looking past binary distinctions of gender, in much the same way Michelangelo thought about Tommaso. The paper features a new identification of the helmet worn by the figure, which helps clarify Michelangelo’s intent. Finally, the paper reinforces how Michelangelo used drawings as opportunities for conversation, enabling a suggestive rather than literal form of communication between master and pupil, friend and friend, admirer and beloved.
GUY TAL - A Chimerical Procession: Invention, Emulation, and the Language of Witchcraft in Lo stregozzo (pp. 267–295)
A Chimerical Procession: Invention, Emulation, and the Language of Witchcraft in Lo stregozzo

Lo stregozzo 
(1520s), the first Italian engraving dedicated to witchcraft, has been studied in terms of attribution, iconography, textual and visual sources, and in relation to early modern witch beliefs. An associational and metaphoric reading opens new possibilities for contextualizing the print. The chimera and the hovering man beneath the witch are deployed as a means of thinking about the early modern conception of witchcraft and the artistic process of creating this print. In one sense, they define witchcraft as a subverted world governed by inversion, heresy, and monstrosity, and in another, they raise theoretical and practical problems concerning artistic imitation and invention.
MARILYN ARONBERG LAVIN - A Faun in Love: The Bernini Sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (pp. 297–323)
A Faun in Love: The Bernini Sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

The author of the Carrara marble group of a faun, a fig tree, three babies, and a panther in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has been variously identified – from by Pietro Bernini and Gianlorenzo together, to conceived by Pietro but carved by Gianlorenzo, to all by Gianlorenzo – and is probably a combination of all three. Its date is surely c. 1616, a time when father and son were working closely together. We know it was beloved by Gianlorenzo for he kept it throughout his adult life always visible, installed on the turning of the staircase that led from the pian terreno to the piano nobile of his house on the Via della Mercede in Rome.

The subject has just as often been debated: named il Fauno molestato dai Putti, it is cited as a teasing incident with one little boy pushing back the faun’s head and the other sticking his tongue out at him. Another, more classical interpretation of the group is as an image of Virgil’s dictum ‘Love Conquers All’. Still a third idea is that the statue was meant as a confrontation to ancient art, in the manner of Michelangelo, to show off the superior technical skill of the modern artist. My interpretation is less metaphorical, more physical than these: it depends on the observation that the obstreperous position of the faun’s raised left leg is part of a long tradition of representing extreme love making. Further, I purport that, he, the faun, is locked in a position of eternal coitus with a beguiling female spirit in the tree. For this reason I call the group ‘A Faun in Love’.

MAREK WALCZAK - Between the Eternal City and Cracow. On the Origins of the Iconography of Saint Hyacinth of Poland OP (d. 1257) (pp. 325–357)
Between the Eternal City and Cracow. On the Origins of the Iconography of Saint Hyacinth of Poland OP

The oldest representation of the Polish Dominican friar, Hyacinth Odrowąż, canonised in Rome in 1594, is a Late Gothic panel painting from around 1500, originally in the church of the Blackfriars in Cracow and since 1666 kept in the parish church at Odrowąż in Lesser Poland, from where the family of the saint is believed to have originated. The painting shows Saint Hyacinth kneeling before a vision of the Virgin, following a description of a miracle in the oldest Life of the saint written by his fellow Dominican from the Cracow convent, friar Stanislaus (1371 – c. 1385/1392). This composition was used in the propagation of the cult of the newly canonised saint and became a source of a generally accepted iconographic type of his representations. A key role in this process was played by the canonisation ceremony in which a banner with a Vision of Saint Hyacinth held a prominent place. The theatrum canonizationis was depicted by Federico Zuccaro in wall paintings (1600) decorating a chapel founded by Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio da Correggio at the church of S. Sabina on the Aventine. The banner represented there was later transported to Cracow where it has survived to this day in the Dominican church. Works of art that originated immediately after the canonisation, especially prints which faithfully reproduce the Vision of Saint Hyacinth, allow to closely follow the development of the iconography of the new saint and the process of the Odrowąż painting acquiring the status of the vera effigies, or true likeness, of Saint Hyacinth.