Piero della Francesca expanded the evolution of continuous narrative in the fifteenth century in his cycle of the True Cross at Arezzo by adding what is called here "narrative encapsulation." This technique involves the layering of several versions of the same story within a unified composition to enrich the fabric of meaning. Three examples from his cycle are elucidated here, to show how, in their expanded form, they enhance the overall significance of the narrative.
On what basis can we say that the History of Art is actually one history encompassing both painting and film, and to which both Jan van Eyck and Woody Allen belong? One possible answer would be that with all of their differences in uses and means, the concepts of art and of being an artist have remained more or less the same. The author thinks that misses the point. Rather it seems to him the other way around: With all the unbridgeable differences over what art is and what it means to be an artist, the uses and means of art are basically consistent. The shared nature of the uses can be defined in this way: Here as there, in late medieval painting as in film, it is a question of producing artificial reality. To be more precise, it is about the construction of a system of artificial realities related to one another and to the audience. That is a structure that does not add to the world's objective realities, but serves to communicate how we perceive these realities and what they mean to us. It is therefore about the production of visual media.
The serial structure of Andy Warhol's silkscreens articulates a dynamic structure of actualization of which anything is an instance, thus providing a model of how the mundane world comes to be, persists to be the same, but is always changing. His serial works enact iterative structures of free, synthetic, iterative self-realization, a rational process of the actualization of things. In making numerous depthless images identical, Warhol makes them different through obvious surface printing accidents, spontaneous traces of differentiating activity. They reveal the constructive activity irreducible to any element involved in making the series. This underivable activity is spontaneous, non-deterministic and free, but also relational because serial.
In the two Diana pictures, Titian prompts the observer to reconstruct an extended time for the dramas and to multiply perspectives by empathetic identification with the protagonists. A reconstruction of what Actaeon saw, thought and foresaw is instructive. Within his scene, and that of Callisto, it leads to the identification of a venereal presence within the realm of the virgin goddess, Diana. The pictures are shown to deal with the conflict between the principles of sterility and fecundity represented by the goddesses, in turn treating allegorically the evolutionary shift in Nature and for humankind that came with Jupiter's ascendency.
In 1754 when Jean Pillement, after a successful stay in Spain and Portugal, arrived in London at the age of twenty six, the English economy was enjoying a dynamic growth which had a direct repercussion on the art market. Thanks to the extraordinary public demand of the time for fine prints of desirable works of art, an artist's stature and fame was directly related to the number of his printed works circulated domestically and abroad. Pillement succeeded in taking full advantage of the opportunities which engravings offered in England; not only through his talent for draughtmanship but also through the renderings of his drawings by first class engravers and etchers, native and imported. It was in England that many of his ornamental designs were first engraved and published. It is also where Pillement began to turn his attention to landscape drawing and painting. His pastoral scenes, seascapes and picturesque views found an appreciative clientele in London. His stay of ten years in England opened to him as well the French market for engravings and established his reputation as a brilliant ornamentalist as well as a landscape artist.
In his Schilderboeck published in 1604, Karel van Mander relates that his friend, Cornelis Ketel "got the urge to paint without brushes, with his hands" and that a year later, in 1600, "it occurred to him to paint without hands, with his feet". This astonishing artistic process has aroused the curiosity of many amateurs and art historians since the seventeenth century, but the reasons that led van Mander to name the technical eccentricities of this painter-poet were never convincingly explained. The present article aims at understanding these singular acts and their underlining in the context of the artists' lives and the artistic theory of this period.
This article is a study of the portraits of Duke Cosimo I de' Medici and his Spanish consort, Duchess Eleonora di Toledo, a subject that has not been undertaken in modern scholarship. The majority of these are by their court portraitist, Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572), whose state portraits (now in collections in Florence, Turin, Philadelphia, Prague, Pisa, Sydney, and Washington) expressed the ideals of the Medici court and the duke's "politica culturale". Others who portrayed the ducal couple were the miniaturist, Giulio Clovio, the painter, Il Tosini, and the sculptors Cellini, Bandinelli, Poggini, Rossi, Del Tadda, and Compagni. The authors present evidence for the inclusion of two of Bronzino's acknowledged masterworks in portraiture of the early 1550s in this group of ducal portraits" the Portrait of a Lady (Turin, Galleria Sabauda) and the Portrait of a Gentleman (Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada). The multifaceted evidence discussed includes a study of the physical properties of the paintings, comparisons with Bronzino's other portraits of the ducal couple (including some using comparative computer imaging), and a consideration of them in the context of Bronzino's workshop practice in the production of Medici portraits. The authors also make a detailed study of the sitters' attire and accessories, which supports the conclusion that they are indeed the Medici couple.
This study examines a long passage on painters' excuses in Bronzino's poem, Il secondo delle scuse. The poem, a burlesque capitolo, offers considerable insight into Bronzino's views on art, its theory and practice. After explicating the poem, I discuss how Bronzino's own artistic practice reflects his beliefs and how his views on art compare to those evinced by Vasari in the Vite. Particular attention is paid to Vasari's Life of Bronzino. The study includes a transcription and English translation of the section on painter's excuses in Il secondo delle scuse.
Sir Edward Burne-Jones' affinity for classical ideals, literature and art is reflected in his mythological paintings, in particular the Perseus and Andromeda series. The objectives of this study are threefold: to reveal Burne-Jones' visual assimilation and aesthetic integration of Neoplatonic ideals in one of his mythological cycles, Perseus and Andromeda, to examine Burne-Jones' adaptation of the classical sources for the Andromeda theme and his awareness of the pictorial tradition for this mythological tale and, to understand Burne-Jones' interpretation of the femme fatale, visually expressed in the image of Andromeda from the Perseus cycle, by focusing on three episodes: The Rock of Doom, The Doom Fulfilled and The Baleful Head of 1875-1888. In his mythological paintings of Andromeda, Burne-Jones embodied an unprecedented strangeness that was bound to strike the imaginations of other artists in the Pre-Raphaelite and Symbolist movements. His paintings provided his contemporaries with examples of classical appropriation in Pre-Raphaelite paintings, along with a systematic use of the great themes of Greek mythology, whose modernized symbolism was adapted to the major preoccupation at the heart of the decadent view of the world - the tragedy of the artist confronted with modern life and contemporary society, the fear of woman and a terrified obsession with sexuality, and the consternation at the mystery of things represented by the myth of Perseus and Andromeda.